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Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903
Etymology: Greek, mylo = mill + Greek, soma = body
Mylossoma are found mainly in the floodplains of the whitewater tributaries and they only move into the channel during dry season or spawning movements. They do not occur in the rio Negro (with the exception of the Manaus area), and they occur all the way up the Solimões into Peru (Iquitos). The distribution is similar to the endemic species Colossoma and Piaractus in the Pantanal.
The genus Mylossoma have a deep, compressed body, almost as disciform as the Metynnis species, chiefly when young. During growth, the depth of the body becomes comparatively less than its length, as was mentioned by L.P. Schultz concerning Venezuelan species. This growth phenomenon is called negative allometry. Mylossoma is easily distinguished from Colossoma by its shape, as mentioned, as well as by its long anal fin, almost entirely covered with minute scales.
VALID SPECIES LIST 2011
From Lake Maracaibo in Venezuela, is best identified by its short anal fin, sides are silvery, its eye and anal fin red. Current thought today implies that M. acanthogaster is valid (Machado-Allison). The species is considered rare. Fish grows to 28.5 SL based on a captured unsexed specimen.
Spix & Agassiz, 1829
Maximum growth of Mylossoma aureum is 20.0 cm TL based on an unsexed specimen. The climate for this fish is tropical 22 - 28°C and is found Amazonas Basin, Orinoco basin. Of minor commercial value.
Mylossoma paraguayensis (Norman, 1929), was synonymized as M. duriventre by Antonio Machado-Allison. It in fact looks more like duriventris than aureum, it has the same ocellum on the side of the body and transversal dark bar along the body similar to juvenile M. duriventre. The distribution of M. duriventre is; Amazon, Orinoco and Paraguay-Paraná River basins: Argentina, Bolovia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuelan.
Grows to 25.0 cm SL and maximum weight: 1,000 g. Important commercial and aquarium trade value. M. duriventre, originates over mud and silt in streams and lakes. Feeds on fish, insects, and plants.
Dr. Paulo Petry, Bio-Amazonia
Ortega, H. and R.P. Vari, 1986. Annotated checklist of the freshwater fishes of Peru.. Smithson. Contrib. Zool. (437):1-25.
Galvis, G., J. I. Mojica and M. Camargo, 1997. Peces del Catatumbo.. Asociación Cravo Norte, Santafé de Bogotá, D.C., p. 188
Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2002. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org, 13 November 2002
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