Transcript Information, Part 6 (Continued from Part 5):
_________________________________________________________________________ APPENDIX I: A Theory of Operation for Joseph Newman's Invention __________________________________________________________________________ Dr. Hastings submitted a phenomenological theory of operation suggested by Joseph Newman's invention, involving the following sequence of events: 1) The battery is switched across the coil and a current wavefront (gyro- scopic particles) propagates into the coil at a speed determined by the coil's propagation time constant. 2) Before the wavefront completes its journey through the coil,the battery voltage is switched open. At this point, the coil contains a charge equal to the current times the on-time. 3) When the switch is opened, all of this charge leaves the coil in a very short time, creating a very large current pulse in the coil. 4) The magnetic field generated by this current pulse (gyroscopic particle flow) propagates out to the permanent magnet armature, and gives it an impulsive torque. 5) The magnet accelerates, and the resulting magnetic field disturbance of the permanent magnet is propagated back to the coil, creating back-emf. However, by the time this occurs, the switch is open so that the back- emf does not impede the current flowing in the battery circuit. __________________________________________________________________________ These notions agree qualitatively with the measured waveforms. After one-half cycle of rotation, a charge on the order of 0.01 Coulombs will be contained within the coil. From the oscillograph this is seen to be dumped in a few milliseconds, creating a current of several amps. This current continues to flow for some ten milliseconds before decaying to zero. Joseph Newman's Motor (one version) can be described by the following set of equations: Ma + F(a) = k I sin (a) t LI + R I = V (a) - k a sin (a) i where, M = Rotor Moment of Inertia F = Friction and Load Torque k = Torque Constant t I = Coil Current L = Coil Inductance R = Coil Resistance V = Applied Voltage k = Induction Constant i a = Rotation Angle The first equation is Newton's Second Law applied to the rotating magnet, while the second is the coil current circuit equation. The voltage is the value applied to the coil within the commutator. If the first equation is multiplied by 'a' and the second equation is multiplied by I, and both equations are averaged over one cycle, the sum of the resulting equations gives:Back to NewmanHome page
= < a F > + < I^2 R > + (k - k ) < a I sin (a) > i t where the brackets indicate a time average over one cycle of rotation. The term on the left is the power input. The first two terms on the right represent the mechanical power output (combined frictional losses and load power), and the ohmic heating in the coil windings. The last term is zero if the torque constant is equal to the induction constant, as would be the case in a conventional motor. However, as postulated above, if the induction constant is smaller than the torque constant, the last term supplies negative power. To view this another way, assume that the input voltage, through the commutator action varies as V(sub o) = V sin (a). If we also assume that the rotor angular speed, a, is nearly a constant, w, the following expression applies for the motor efficiency: < wF > k w < I sin (a) > k w t t e = _____________ = _______________________ = __________ < IV > V < I sin (a) > V o o The following two equations can now be solved for the presumed speed: LI + RI = (V - K w ) sin (wt) o i < F (w) > = k < I sin (wt) > t The solution depends upon the details of the mechanical load function, F(w). If, however, the torque constant and voltage are both very large (as they are in Joseph Newman's invention), then the angular speed is approximately: V o w apr.= __________ k i and the expression for the efficiency becomes: k t e apr.= __________ k i If the torque and induction constants are equal, the motor is nearly one hundred percent efficient. If the torque constant exceeds the induction constant, the efficiency exceeds 100%. Dr. Hastings concluded that Joseph Newman's process "is a useful tool by which predictions of circuit function can be made without mathematics." Dr. Hastings cited in support of Joseph Newman's mechanical model that "mechanical models of electromagnetic interactions were considered essential by scientists of the 19th Century" and that "Maxwell originally derived his famous equations using a mechanical model of the electromagnetic field," and Maxwell specifically stated the following: "The Theory I propose may therefore be called a Theory of the electromagnetic field because it has to do with the space in neighborhood of the electric or magnetic bodies, and it may be called a dynamical Theory because is assumes that in that space there is MATTER IN MOTION, by which the observed elec- tromagnetic phenomena are produced . . . In speaking of the energy of the field, I wish to be understood literally: ALL ENERGY IS THE SAME AS MECHANICAL ENERGY." (emphasis added) ____________________________________________________________________________ APPENDIX II: Plaintiff Newman's Tests. ____________________________________________________________________________ Since Plaintiff Newman first filed his application, he has submitted both to the Patent Office and in the course of pre-trial discovery, the following proofs that his claims are valid: A. A qualitative demonstration of the validity of "the static embodiment" found in fig. 1 by observing the behavior of inert metal in fluids producing and inducing an electrical current. B. Qualitative and quantitative tests of such prototype models ("Mod.") as identified below for figs. 5 and 6 (as noted): ____________________________________________________________________________ The Prototype Models ____________________________________________________________________________ a. A coil of #5 gauge insulated wire in a continuous length weighing approximately 70-90 pounds, a 2.5" cube permanent magnet and 1.5 volt "N" type battery. Used this prototype to demonstrate figs. 5 and 6 and described it in the patent application. b. An input coil of #10 gauge wire (160 lbs.) plus #5 gauge wire (500 lbs.) and a cylindrical permanent magnet (90 lbs.) and a cylindrical permanent magnet (90 lbs.) and a set of batteries in series to produce from 12 to 120 volts; the wire used for prototype 'a' was incorporated in prototype 'b' in accordance with the teaching of the patent application --- to use more wire. This prototype was used principally to demonstrate fig. 6 although adaptable to fig. 5 and used to demonstrate fig. 5 as well. c. Model 15-C1: An input coil of #5 gauge wire (4,200 lbs., later 9,000 lbs.) and an output coil of #30 gauge wire (300 lbs.) with a cylindrical permanent magnet (first weighing 400 lbs, later 700 lbs) with a set of batteries in series producing 126 volts (later increased to 140 and 180 volts). This prototype was used exclusively to demonstrate fig. 6 --- too weighty to adapt its use to fig. 5. The large version of this unit was transported from Lucedale, Mississippi to Washington D.C. and was demonstrated at the Capitol Centre. d. Model 15-C2: #30 gauge insulated copper wire weighing approximately 145 lbs. and having a rotating magnet of 14 lbs. with a volt input from several hundred volts upward and low milliamps input current. Used this prototype to demonstrate fig. 5. [Note: The latest prototypes are more "streamlined" with a redesigned Commutator System and are intended principally to operate as a Motor via the generation of useful torque.] End of part 6 END of these Transcribes.
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