Subject: Transcript Information -- Part 6
Date: Mon, 5 Aug 1996 12:52:55 -0700 (PDT)

Transcript Information, Part 6 (Continued from Part 5):

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APPENDIX I:  A Theory of Operation for Joseph Newman's Invention

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Dr. Hastings submitted a phenomenological theory of operation suggested by

Joseph Newman's invention, involving the following sequence of events:

1) The battery is switched across the coil and a current wavefront  (gyro-

scopic particles) propagates into the coil at a speed determined by the

coil's propagation time constant.

2) Before the wavefront completes its journey through the coil,the battery

voltage is switched open.    At this point,  the coil contains a charge

equal to the current times the on-time.

3) When the switch is opened, all of this charge leaves the coil in a very

short time, creating a very large current pulse in the coil.

4) The magnetic field generated by this current pulse (gyroscopic particle

flow) propagates out to the permanent magnet armature,  and gives it an

impulsive torque.

5) The magnet accelerates, and the resulting magnetic field disturbance of

the permanent magnet is propagated back to the coil, creating back-emf.

However, by the time this occurs,  the switch is open so that the back-

emf does not impede the current flowing in the battery circuit.

__________________________________________________________________________

These notions agree qualitatively with the measured waveforms.  After

one-half cycle of rotation, a charge on the order of 0.01 Coulombs will be

contained within the coil.  From the oscillograph this is seen to be dumped

in a few milliseconds, creating a current of several amps.  This current

continues to flow for some ten milliseconds before decaying to zero.

Joseph Newman's Motor (one version) can be described by the following

set of equations:

Ma   +   F(a)   =   k   I  sin (a)

t

LI   +   R I    =   V (a) - k  a  sin (a)

i

where,      M   =  Rotor Moment of Inertia

F   =  Friction and Load Torque

k   =  Torque Constant

t

I   =  Coil Current

L   =  Coil Inductance

R   =  Coil Resistance

V   =  Applied Voltage

k   =  Induction Constant

i

a   =  Rotation Angle

The first equation is Newton's Second Law applied to the rotating magnet,

while the second is the coil current circuit equation.  The voltage is the

value applied to the coil within the commutator.  If the first equation is

multiplied by 'a' and the second equation is multiplied by I, and both

equations are averaged over one cycle, the sum of the resulting equations

gives:

=  < a F >  +  < I^2 R >  +  (k  -  k  ) < a I sin (a) >

i     t

where the brackets indicate a time average over one cycle of rotation.

The term on the left is the power input.  The first two terms on the

right represent the mechanical power output (combined frictional losses and

load power), and the ohmic heating in the coil windings.  The last term is

zero if the torque constant is equal to the induction constant, as would be

the case in a conventional motor.  However, as postulated above, if the

induction constant is smaller than the torque constant, the last term

supplies negative power.

To view this another way, assume that the input voltage, through the

commutator action varies as  V(sub o)  =  V  sin (a).

If we also assume that the rotor angular speed, a, is nearly a constant,

w, the following expression applies for the motor efficiency:

<  wF  >             k  w < I sin (a) >           k  w

t                            t

e  =   _____________   =   _______________________  =   __________

<  IV  >             V   < I sin (a) >             V

o                             o

The following two equations can now be solved for the presumed speed:

LI  +  RI   =   (V  -  K  w )  sin  (wt)

o     i

< F (w) > =    k  < I sin (wt) >

t

The solution depends upon the details of the mechanical load function,

F(w).  If, however, the torque constant and voltage are both very large (as

they are in Joseph Newman's invention), then the angular speed is

approximately:

V

o

w   apr.=  __________

k

i

and the expression for the efficiency becomes:

k

t

e   apr.=  __________

k

i

If the torque and induction constants are equal, the motor is nearly one

hundred percent efficient.  If the torque constant exceeds the induction

constant, the efficiency exceeds 100%.

Dr. Hastings concluded that Joseph Newman's process "is a useful tool by

which predictions of circuit function can be made without mathematics."

Dr. Hastings cited in support of Joseph Newman's mechanical model that

"mechanical models of electromagnetic interactions were considered

essential by scientists of the 19th Century" and that "Maxwell originally

derived his famous equations using a mechanical model of the

electromagnetic field," and Maxwell specifically stated the following:

"The Theory I propose may therefore be called a Theory of the

electromagnetic field because it has to do with the space in

neighborhood of the electric or magnetic bodies,  and it may

be called a dynamical Theory because is assumes that in that

space there is MATTER IN MOTION, by which the observed elec-

tromagnetic phenomena are produced . . .  In speaking of the

energy of the field,  I  wish  to  be  understood literally:

ALL   ENERGY    IS   THE   SAME   AS   MECHANICAL   ENERGY."

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APPENDIX II:  Plaintiff Newman's Tests.

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Since Plaintiff Newman first filed his application, he has submitted

both to the Patent Office and in the course of pre-trial discovery, the

following proofs that his claims are valid:

A.  A qualitative demonstration of the validity of "the static embodiment"

found in fig. 1 by observing the behavior of inert metal in fluids

producing and inducing an electrical current.

B.  Qualitative and quantitative tests of such prototype models ("Mod.") as

identified below for figs. 5 and 6 (as noted):

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The Prototype Models

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a. A coil of #5 gauge insulated wire in a continuous length weighing

approximately 70-90 pounds, a 2.5" cube permanent magnet and 1.5 volt "N"

type battery.  Used this prototype to demonstrate figs. 5 and 6 and

described it in the patent application.

b. An input coil of #10 gauge wire (160 lbs.) plus #5 gauge wire (500

lbs.) and a cylindrical permanent magnet (90 lbs.) and a cylindrical

permanent magnet (90 lbs.) and a set of batteries in series to produce from

12 to 120 volts; the wire used for prototype 'a' was incorporated in

prototype 'b' in accordance with the teaching of the patent application ---

to use more wire.  This prototype was used principally to demonstrate fig.

6 although adaptable to fig. 5 and used to demonstrate fig. 5 as well.

c. Model 15-C1: An input coil of #5 gauge wire (4,200 lbs., later 9,000

lbs.) and an output coil of #30 gauge wire (300 lbs.) with a cylindrical

permanent magnet (first weighing 400 lbs, later 700 lbs) with a set of

batteries in series producing 126 volts (later increased to 140 and 180

volts).  This prototype was used exclusively to demonstrate fig. 6 --- too

weighty to adapt its use to fig. 5.  The large version of this unit was

transported from Lucedale, Mississippi to Washington D.C. and was

demonstrated at the Capitol Centre.

d. Model 15-C2: #30 gauge insulated copper wire weighing approximately

145 lbs. and having a rotating magnet of 14 lbs. with a volt input from

several hundred volts upward and low milliamps input current.  Used this

prototype to demonstrate fig. 5.

[Note: The latest prototypes are more "streamlined" with a redesigned

Commutator System and are intended principally to operate as a Motor via

the generation of useful torque.]

End of part 6  END of these Transcribes.

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