Plaintiff Joseph Newman expected his claims would be greeted skeptically and therefore built prototypes to prove what he claimed. JN conceded at the time of his patent application that his "working prototypes," corresponding to figures 5 and 6, were "rough" and that "it should be self-evident that the prototypes by various mechanical means and designs can easily be made extremely efficient."
Dr. Hastings confirmed that "the early prototypes were quite crude" and there was a "lot of friction" and a "lot of heat being produced."
Since the filing of his original Application, Plaintiff has built additional prototypes and run countless tests. These tests uniformly demonstrate that JN's devices produce more output than input energy. These tests also support Plaintiff JN's claims that: there is a large back current; that this back current is real and comprised of considerable energy; and that the back current is lost if Newman's device is grounded. These tests demonstrate the r.f. power of JN's device and that it's real. These tests demonstrate that Newman's device recharges D.C. batteries that are not rechargable. Lastly, JN's device demonstrates mechanical efficiency greater than unity.
1. The Device Produces More Output than Input.
Dr. Hastings tested JN's prototype (figure 6) in Andover, Maryland at the Capitol Centre. Dr. Hastings used the circuit shown in Plaintiff's Ex. 8C, consisting of a commutator and a 700 pound magnetic rotor within a 9,000 pound coil (55 miles in length).
The input power was 95 6-volt D.C. batteries wired in series (590 volts). The output power was: (a) the friction of the spinning rotor, (b) the ohmic losses in the coil, (c) 12 15-watt incandescent light bulbs in series with the batteries, (d) 4 40-watt fluorescent lamps and 2 25-watt bulbs wired across the coil, and (e) a fan connected to the shaft of the rotor. (See Schematic.)
When Dr. Hastings threw the "main power switch," the input pwer was only 6 watts but the output produced as the 700 pound rotor turned at about 200 rpm and with all the bulbs lit was more than 390 watts, that is, 65 TIMES THE INPUT.
[The input current (I) was 10 milliamps as measured and the voltage (V) was 590 volts; the input power (V x I) was therefore 5.9 watts.]
[Dr. Hastings conducted consistency checks of his measurements, that is, independent measurements to see if he obtained the same result. As the following text shows, he did obtain the same results. Dr. Hastings did not, however, conduct an error analysis since the differences were substantial as in this case, 65 to 1. As Dr. Hastings stated during cross-examination, "Some qualitative judgments are easier to make than others."]
Dr. Hastings measured (a) the mechanical loss of the spinning motor at 200 watts [the 200 watt loss was measured by the period required for the rotor to slow down after the motor was stopped.]; and (b) the r.f. ohmic losses in the coil at 190 watts [this is the product of the current squared (I x I) and the coil resistance (R)], but disregarded (c) - (e) the output power required to light the incandescent and fluorescent bulb and the fan.
[Dr. Hastings testified that simply adding the wattage of these lamps connected in series (390 watts) would only approximate the power the bulbs required as they may not have been lit to full brilliance; thus he made no calculation as to the power required by the bulbs the device lit or the fan it turned. He also explained that the fluorescent bulbs served an additional purpose, namely, to protect the commutator from the sparking created by the back current, but that was not necessary for JN's smaller devices.]
2. The Device Produces a Large Back Current
The back spikes "can be many amps and many hundreds of thousands of volts," Hastings testified. Using an oscilloscope [Dr. Hastings used a Tektronix dual trace oscilloscope, the calibration of which is traceable to the National Bureau of Standards. Ralph Hartwell testified that he had it calibrated.], Dr. Hastings confirmed the accuracy of the measured input current and observed the large back current that JN purports is critical to the operation of his device. Dr. Hastings studied the waveform the back current generated when the magnetic field of the coil collapses and noted that what appeared to be a single spike of current was (when he magnified it) a set of stairs, each stair of equal width, approximately corresponding in width to the length of the wiring in the coil divided by the speed of light. The current waveform under the stairs was at a frequency of about 13 megahertz.
[Note: The batteries JN used are not capable of producing r.f. current.]
During Dr. Hastings' cross-examination, it was suggested by the Patent Commissioner that the commutator's adjustment was critical to this back power; Hastings testified that, although there would be no r.f. power without the commutator, the radio frequency range observed is independent of the commutator arrangement.
Dr. Hastings instead attributed the significant back current to the extraordinary inductance of JN's primary coil. [Dr. Hastings testified that an ordinary coil has an inductance of 1/1000 of a Henry, whereas JN's coils had an inductance of thousands of Henries.
Dr. Hastings explained that when the direction of the current is switched, the resultant voltage is directly proportional to the inductance and it is "absolutely gigantic" when compared to a "typical motor."
Ralph Hartwell [an expert in radio electronics with over 40 years experience and currently responsible for maintaining radio and TV equipment for WWL-TV and for having designed, constructed, managed and owned radio stations himself] agreed that 90 percent of the radio frequency energy was being generated by the coil and he made this determination using an absorption meter. Hartwell also used a spectrum analyzer on the same figure 6 prototype demonstrated at the Capitol Centre to determine at what frequency JN's device was generating radio frequency power; he found "several broad peaks centered at 8, 12, and 18 megahertz."
End of Transcript Information, Part 3
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