Joseph Newman described embodiments of his device consisting of "a relatively heavy coil made up of relatively large diameter wire of relatively greater length and number of loops and length and a relatively small energizing current to drive a rotatable permanent magnet."
Dr. Hastings testified that "the essential feature" of Joseph Newman's motors is that "the length of wire (of the coil) should be extremely long."****
Joseph Newman's patent application included drawings (figures 5 and 6) that illustrated a battery-driven motor with generating coils and each figure was distinguished from the other in only one respect: in figure 5 the motor rotary was outside the primary coil; in figure 6 the motor rotary was inside the coil.
As for the secondary coil, Joseph Newman stated that his invention "can be made without using [the secondary] coil.
[****Note: Joseph Newman disclosed one prototype in his application that was powered by a 1.5 volt D.C. battery using a magnet and a coil of 15 gauge wire that had so many turns that it weighed about 90 pounds and ran at high speeds for 12 hours without running down. (While operating, the battery would become over-charged.)]
While the figures show a D.C. battery as a power source, Joseph Newman's application stated that "alternating current can be used..."
The motor rotary in both figures consists of a permanent magnet mounted on a shaft with a commutator.
Lastly, neither figure 5 or 6 shows a ground connection in the circuit Joseph Newman used.
When the battery (or power supply) produces D.C. current, the shaft of the rotary magnet turns as does the commutator. As the commutator rotates, the brushes on the commutator alternately contact positive and negative voltage from the battery. Direction is thus reversed very half-turn (180 degrees) by the commutator. [Note: commutator innovations have been developed in the later prototype models.]
On some commutators Joseph Newman (JN) designed, he used an interrupt to speed up the switching time of the coil.
Reversing the current direction every half-turn keeps the motor rotating in the same direction, that is, it maintains "a positive torque."
As already noted, both figures have a rotary and a coil with the rotary inside or outside of the primary coil but, in either case, "when a magnet [the rotor] is moved in the vicinity of ... [the] coil of wire, current will flow in that [coil of] wire."
As Dr. Hastings testified, "The magnetic field created by putting current into the coil extends all throughout space, and so at any point in space there's going to be a magnetic field that changes directin every 180 degrees."
There is therefore no conceptual or physical difference between figures 5 and 6. Indeed, in the case of figure 5, if one disregards the windings, one has "what's commonly referred to as an electric motor."
Dr. Hastings explained how JN's device obtained more energy out than required to run it:
"When current flows through the motor there is a torque exerted in the rotor and then, in return, the rotor induces a back current or an opposing current in the coil."
Dr. Hastings concluded when "the reaction of the rotor on the coil is smaller than the force that drove the rotor." then there is "more output power than input power."
The force that drives the motor is the product of the current (I) and the voltage (V) at the battery and it is calculated by multiplying current times voltage at every point in time and taking the average over a cycle of operation of the motor.
In reference to figures 5 and 6, the output is the mechanical work that might be "taken off the shaft or through the pulley; the "electrical power generated in the load resistor" in the coil in figures 5 and 6; the "heat generated in the coil"; and the "frictional heat generated in the bearings."
In reliance on Plaintiff's Patent Application*****, Dr. Hastings
described a phenomenological model of JN's device:
"You close the switch and current flows [from the battery (or power supply)] into the coil and basically fills the coil up, and now, just when it [the current] gets to the other end [of the coil], you open the switch [the commutator] and the current all comes out at once in this giant [back] spike [of current], and when it does that, it puts a big --- like a karate chop, a very large torque on the rotor. The rotor accelerates and then --- because there is a ... time lag associated with these things ---it [the rotor] accelerates and then it creates a reaction field [magnetic] that propagates [as current] out to the wire. But by the time it [the current] gets there [to the end of the coil], the switch is already open and it can't react on the current flow in the wire."
[*****Note: As Patent Examiner Donovan F. Duggan rejected Joseph Newman's
original 14 claims, Joseph Newman substituted 29 more claims (claims 15 to
43) describing his method and embodiments including those prototypes
corresponding to figures 5 and 6; he described figures 5 and 6 in claim 29
as a "method of increasing the availability of usable electrical energy or
usable motion, or both" comprising the steps:
a) providing a magnetic device for producing usable electrical energy or usable motion, which device includes a material through which electrical current can interact producing a magnetic field which interacts with a separate mass having a magnetic field, and further providing a source of electrical energy such as, for example, a battery, generator, or any other; b) providing a complete electrical circuit between said magnetic field device and said source of electrical energy and producing from said source to said device an alternating electrical current potential; and c) retarding the flow of current through said device back to said source to the greatest extent practical, producing a relatively small and preferably negligible current flow through said source and resulting in electrical energy output, or usable motion output, being a greater energy output than energy input into the device.
Plaintiff Newman's CLAIM 30 provides that the means to obtain step (c) of claim 29 was to have a "relatively large coil or coils of wire having a relatively large number of turns of wire of a relatively large diameter and a relatively great length; CLAIM 31 provides that "the electric current is retained within at least one member outside of the source of said original electric current" in order to produce a "continuous electromagnetic motion;" CLAIM 32 provides that "a separate magnetic force" is used so that "it's magnetic lines of force" avoid "a braking effect;" CLAIM 33 provides that the material in claim 29, step (a), is "a super conducting material" and "said separate magnetic mass is at least equivalent to a cyrogenic magnet;" CLAIM 36 provides that the material mass allows for fast alignment "without the delay, or conventional degree of hysteresis losses normally associated with conventional iron alignment."]
Thus did Plaintiff describe how his device produced as output energy: (a) mechanical work, (b) mechanical friction, (c) ohmic heating, and (d) electrical energy that were together many times larger than the battery input energy.
End of Transcript Information, Part 2
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