Hybrid science which applies chemical principles and techniques to geologic/geotechnical studies in order to understand how chemical elements are distributed and act inside the crust, mantle, and core of the earth. Over billions of years, chemical differentiation of the earth's crust has created vast rafts of silica-rich rocks, the continents, which float on iron- and magnesium-rich rocks of the ocean bottoms.
Time scale that covers the earth's entire history from the present to its physical origin.
Geophysics, branch of science that applies physical principles to the study of the earth. Geophysicists examine physical phenomena and their relationships within the earth; such phenomena include the earth's magnetic field, heat flow, the propagation of seismic (earthquake) waves, and the force of gravity. The scope of geophysics also broadly includes outer-space phenomena that influence the earth, even in subtle ways; the effects of the sun on the earth's magnetic field; and manifestations of cosmic radiation and the solar wind.
Granites are dense and hard rocks that resist wear and often have a speckled appearance. While geologically the term "granite" is really restricted to certain crystalline rocks of igneous origin made up of quartz, feldspar and mica, in the stone and masonry industry the term is used for almost all igneous rocks with an interlocking granular texture. For example, black granite refers to black, fine-grained igneous rocks such as basalt and diabase, which scientifically speaking are not granite. Granites have low porosity and permeability, which gives most of them a high resistance to weathering, although some may be susceptible to iron staining. Granite is often used in construction and lanscaping componenets that are in contact with the ground (steps, walkways, even foundations) in predominantly brick, limestone or sandstone buildings.
A thin mixture of cementitious material and aggregate to which sufficient water is added to produce pouring consistency without segregation of the constituents. 1. High-Lift Grouting: The technique of grouting masonry in lifts up to 12 ft.
2. Low-Lift Grouting: The technique of grouting as the wall is constructed.
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