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Treaty of Annexation between the Republic of Hawaii and the United States of America (1898). Full text of the treaty, and of the resolutions whereby the Republic of Hawaii legislature and the U.S. Congress ratified it. The politics surrounding the treaty, then and now.


(c) Copyright 2010 by Kenneth R. Conklin, Ph.D. All rights reserved

CONTENTS:

INTRODUCTION -- the politics of the Treaty of Annexation, then and now

TREATY OF ANNEXATION BETWEEN THE REPUBLIC OF HAWAII AND THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

RESOLUTION OF THE SENATE OF HAWAII RATIFYING THE TREATY OF ANNEXATION.

JOINT RESOLUTION OF THE U.S. SENATE AND U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, SIGNED BY PRESIDENT MCKINLEY, TO ACCEPT THE TREATY OF ANNEXATION OFFERED BY THE REPUBLIC OF HAWAII (also known as the "Newlands Resolution" named after the Congressman who introduced it)

EXCERPT FROM PRESIDENT MCKINLEY'S STATE OF THE UNION MESSAGE OF DECEMBER 6, 1897. The length of this excerpt indicates the importance he placed on ratifying the Treaty of Annexation.

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Introduction -- the politics of the Treaty of Annexation, then and now

With all treaties, diplomats from both nations first negotiate and agree on what a treaty will say. They then prepare a document containing that text, which is signed by the Secretaries of State of both nations and perhaps also by the head of government (President, King, etc.). Once both sides have agreed and signed the document, each side then presents the treaty to its own legislative body for final ratification in accord with whatever procedure each nation uses to ratify such documents. Different nations have different procedures.

The Treaty of Annexation between the Republic of Hawaii and the United States of America was negotiated, signed, and ratified in 1897-1898. There was no internet, no airplanes, and not even telegraph or telephone communication between Hawaii and the U.S. It took a long time for someone to carry a document traveling by steamship and railroad, and an even longer time if several rounds of negotiations were needed.

President Grover Cleveland, a personal friend of ex-queen Lili'uokalani, came into office only a few weeks after the Hawaiian revolution that overthrew the monarchy. Cleveland spent the remainder of 1893 trying his best to destabilize the Republic of Hawaii and restore Lili'uokalani to the throne. But his efforts failed because the Republic was strong. The U.S. Congress refused to authorize Cleveland to use military force, even though Congress was controlled by Cleveland's own Democrat party. One year after the Hawaiian revolution, the U.S. Senate held hearings for two months in open session taking testimony under oath and cross examination regarding what happened in January 1893. As a result of those hearings the Senate passed a resolution ordering Cleveland to keep hands off of Hawaii. By Summer 1896 Cleveland was so unpopular that the Democrat Party refused to nominate him for re-election. The Democrats were so unpopular with the people that the Republicans took over Congress in the November election and also were successful in electing William McKinley to the Presidency. On March 4, 1897 McKinley was inaugurated. Very soon after that the Republic of Hawaii drafted a Treaty of Annexation and began three months of negotiations with a friendly McKinley administration.

On June 16, 1897 a meeting was held in Washington D.C. to sign the product of those negotiations -- the Treaty of Annexation. Hawaii Secretary of State Francis M. Hatch and cabinet ministers Lorrin A. Thurston, William A. Kinney, and John Sherman signed the treaty as plenipotentiaries on behalf of Hawaii President Sanford B. Dole; while John Sherman, Secretary of State, signed the treaty as plenipotentiary on behalf of U.S. President William McKinley. Two identical documents were signed by all present, one for Hawaii and one for the U.S.

The treaty copy for Hawaii was taken to Honolulu, where it was debated and passed unanimously by the Senate of the Republic of Hawaii on September 9, 1897. A document quoting the entire treaty and certifying that the Hawaii Senate had passed it was signed by William C. Wilder (President of the Hawaii Senate) and notarized by J.F. Clay (Clerk of the Senate of Hawaii).

In Washington the treaty was submitted to the U.S. Senate for ratification. However, the Senate failed to muster the 2/3 vote needed for ratification; partly because of opposition by Senators from Southern states who did not want competition from Hawaii sugar plantations, partly because of racial prejudice against admitting Hawaii's dark-skinned people to the U.S., and partly because of a petition against annexation containing about 21,000 signatures by mostly native Hawaiians. But then a few months later, things were very different. The Spanish-American War began, and the U.S. Navy wanted to use Hawaii as a coaling station for warships on the way to the Philippines. Grover Cleveland (an isolationist Democrat) was so unpopular that he failed to be nominated to run again for President, and William McKinley won the election (an expansionist Republican). The Democrats also lost control of Congress to the Republicans.

In July 1897 Congress passed a joint resolution to ratify the Treaty of Annexation. A joint resolution requires only a simple majority in both houses of Congress, but the resolution to adopt the Treaty of Annexation actually passed by 42-21 in the Senate (exactly 2/3) and by 209-91 in the House (more than 2/3). So, in the final analysis, the vote for annexation exceeded the 2/3 that would be required for a treaty, even though it was now called a joint resolution. President McKinley signed the annexation document into law on July 7, 1898. The formal ceremony marking the annexation was held at Iolani Palace on August 12, 1898 because the Palace was the Capitol of the Republic of Hawaii and now would house the legislative and executive offices of the Territory of Hawaii.

Some Hawaiian sovereignty activists today claim that "There never was a treaty of annexation." They also say that a joint resolution of the U.S. is merely an internal law of the U.S. which has no authority to reach out and grab foreign lands. But of course that's silly. There was indeed a treaty of annexation, whose text is provided below. The treaty was proposed by Hawaii which eagerly and repeatedly sought annexation; it was not a situation where the U.S. reached out to grab anything. There is no "international law" dictating what method a nation must use to ratify an agreement with another nation -- each nation decides for itself what methods to use. Some nations don't even have a Senate, let alone requiring a 2/3 vote.

In modern times, it is now well-established in Constitutional law that an international agreement can be approved and become binding on the US by a majority vote of both houses of Congress [Restatement (3d) of the Foreign Relations Law of the US sec. 303]. Hundreds of international agreements have been done this way in the 20th century, and the Supreme Court repeatedly has held that the method is valid. Executive agreements between the President and a foreign head of government are also valid even if they are not ratified by either a treaty or a joint resolution. If the Southern Senators who opposed Hawaii's annexation had wanted to, they could have filed a lawsuit in the Supreme Court complaining that a joint resolution cannot be used for ratifying a treaty; but they never filed any such complaint.

Another argument used by Hawaiian sovereignty activists is that the Republic of Hawaii was not the legitimate government and therefore had no right or authority to offer a treaty of annexation. But that claim is easily disproved. First, no nation that had diplomatic relations with the Kingdom of Hawaii ever filed any protest over either the revolution of 1893 or the annexation of 1898. More importantly: after the Republic of Hawaii was established in July 1894, letters of full-fledged diplomatic recognition de jure were personally signed by Emperors, Kings, Queens, and Presidents of at least 20 nations -- all the major nations which had previously had diplomatic relations and treaties with the Kingdom of Hawaii now recognized that the Republic was the rightful successor government of the still-independent nation of Hawaii following the revolution of 1893. Those letters are available in the state Archives. Photographs of them have been placed on a webpage at
http://tinyurl.com/4wtwdz
Historical significance and implications for statehood, Akaka bill, and ceded lands; are at
http://tinyurl.com/2pxqgz
along with a detailed example of the Hawaiian sovereignty lie that such letters do not exist.

The apology resolution of 1993 puts the U.S. on record as apologizing for its role in the 1893 overthrow of the monarchy. Many Hawaiian sovereignty activists say the apology resolution shows the revolution was illegal, and therefore the annexation of 1898 and statehood vote of 1959 were also illegal, and therefore the ceded lands still belong to Native Hawaiians. But in 2009 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled 9-0 that the apology resolution is merely a resolution of sentiment with no legal force, and that the ceded lands belong to all Hawaii's people in fee simple absolute and can be sold without permission from Native Hawaiians. See the history of that lawsuit and the full text of most of the legal documents at
http://bigfiles90.angelfire.com/CededNoSell.html

But the Hawaiian sovereignty activists point out that the apology resolution of 1993 is a joint resolution passed by both houses of Congress and signed by the President, just like the joint resolution of annexation in 1898. Therefore, they say, if the apology resolution has no legal force, than neither does the annexation resolution. So Hawaii is free! However, anyone comparing the two resolutions will immediately see the difference. The apology resolution consists almost entirely of "whereas" preambles stating opinions and feelings, but only a few "now therefore" conclusions calling for actions which merely "urge" things like reconciliation. The joint resolution accepting the Treaty of Annexation, however, has only a few "whereas" preambles but numerous "now therefore" conclusions stating specific actions and consequences. For a comparison of the effectiveness of the two joint resolutions, see "The Hawaii Annexation Resolution (1898) and the Hawaii Apology Resolution (1993) -- Do they have the force of law?" at
http://www.angelfire.com/bigfiles90/2ResosCompared.html

For further details about Hawaii's annexation to the U.S., see
http://www.angelfire.com/hi2/hawaiiansovereignty/annexation.html

See also "Hawaii Statehood -- straightening out the history-twisters. A historical narrative defending the legitimacy of the revolution of 1893, the annexation of 1898, and the statehood vote of 1959."
http://www.angelfire.com/big09a/StatehoodHistUntwistedFull.html

There's a statue of President William McKinley in front of McKinley High School in Honolulu. In his right hand he's holding a document with the words "Treaty of Annexation" written on it.



Top: Statue of President William McKinley in front of McKinley High School in Honolulu, taken from
http://farm5.static.flickr.com/4103/5066032379_5e334c57ca_m.jpg
Bottom: Closeup of right hand of McKinley statue holding "Treaty of Annexation". taken from
http://www.hawaiiankingdom.info/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/McKinley-Statue-Treaty-of-Annex.jpg

According to the McKinley High School webpage, the bronze statue weighs eight tons, cost $8,000, and was dedicated on February 23, 1911; at which time the residents of Honolulu were apparently very favorable to President McKinley for his helpfulness in getting Hawaii to become a U.S. territory. But today there are Hawaiian sovereignty zealots who deny that there ever was a treaty of annexation, and have gone so far as to introduce a resolution in the state legislature to remove the "Treaty of Annexation" from the statue's hand. The history-twister resolution complains "... these inaccuracies, when incorporated into public displays such as statues, are harmful to all, including young people at McKinley High School, because they perpetuate and promote misinformation, leaving Hawai‘i's youth unprepared to engage in meaningful dialogue on Hawai‘i's history ..." and concludes " ... now, therefore, BE IT RESOLVED by the Senate of the Twenty-fifth Legislature of the State of Hawaii, Regular Session of 2009, the House of Representatives concurring, that efforts to promote correct Hawaiian history in the State, including historically accurate renderings, must be supported; and BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the document carried in the statue's hand be removed through recasting ..." The full resolution can be seen at
http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/session2009/Bills/SCR144_.HTM

Hawaii's history twisters have gone so far as to demand that portrait paintings of leaders of Hawaii's Provisional Government (January 17, 1893 to July 4, 1894) should be removed from places of honor in Hawaii state government buildings. Let's simply erase those people from history and make them into Soviet-style non-persons! Text of the resolution is at
http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/session2010/Bills/HCR8_.HTM

In the same spirit of non-person historical revisionism, another resolution would change the name of William McKinley High School to Barack Hussein Obama II High School. See
http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/session2009/Bills/HCR172_.HTM

** NOTE REGARDING SOURCE OF DOCUMENTS BELOW:

In 1909 ex-queen Lili'uokalani filed a lawsuit against the United States demanding money for the crown lands ceded to the U.S. during the annexation of 1898. In 1910 the court ruled against her. The ruling was based on Hawaiian Kingdom law, citing that fact that after 1865 the crown lands belonged to the government and were no longer the personal property of the monarch; therefore Lili'uokalani never owned them; therefore she was not entitled to any money or damages for the ceding of those lands. (In 1865 the King had signed a legislative bill whereby the legislature issued government bonds to pay off the King's mortgage on the crown lands in return for the King turning over the ownership of the crown lands to the government). That lawsuit contains several appendices consisting of documents verifying the 1865 law and also verifying that the U.S. Court of Claims had jurisdiction in this lawsuit because the ceded lands were legitimately ceded to the U.S. in the annexation of 1898. Among those documents are the following three. Thus, in the course of deciding Lili'uokalani's lawsuit, the court also upheld the legitimacy of the overthrow and annexation, by citing the annexation documents as evidence. To see Lili'uokalani's complaint, the court's decision, and the appendices including the Treaty of Annexation documents below, go to
http://www.angelfire.com/hi2/hawaiiansovereignty/liliucrownlands.html

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TREATY OF ANNEXATION BETWEEN THE REPUBLIC OF HAWAII AND THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

The Republic of Hawaii and the United States of America, in view of the natural dependence of the Hawaiian Islands upon the United States, of their geographical proximity thereto, of the preponderant share acquired by the United States and its citizens in the industries and trade of said islands, and of the expressed desire of the Government of the Republic of Hawaii that those islands should be incorporated into the United States as an integral part thereof, and under its sovereignty, have determined to accomplish by treaty an object so important to their mutual and permanent welfare.

To this end the high contracting parties have conferred full powers and authority upon their respectively appointed plenipotentiaries, to wit:

The President of the Republic of Hawaii, Francis March Hatch, Lorrin A. Thurston, and William A. Kinney.

The President of the United States, John Sherman, Secretary of State of the United States.

ARTICLE I.

The Republic of Hawaii hereby cedes absolutely and without reserve to the United States of America all rights of sovereignty of whatsoever kind in and over the Hawaiian Islands and their dependencies; and it is agreed that all the territory of and appertaining to the Republic of Hawaii is hereby annexed to the United States of America under the name of the Territory of Hawaii.

ARTICLE II.

The Republic of Hawaii also cedes and hereby transfers to the United States the absolute fee and ownership of all public, government, or crown lands, public buildings or edifices, ports, harbors, military equipments, and all other public property of every kind and description belonging to the Government of the Hawaiian Islands, together with every right and appurtenance thereunto appertaining.

The existing laws of the United States relative to public lands shall not apply to such lands in the Hawaiian Islands; but the Congress of the United States shall enact special laws for their management and disposition. Provided, that all revenue from or proceeds of the same, except as regards such part thereof as may be used or occupied for the civil, military, or naval purposes of the United States, or may be assigned for the use of the local government, shall be used solely for the benefit of the inhabitants of the Hawaiian Islands for educational and other public purposes.

ARTICLE III.

Until Congress shall provide for the government of such islands, all civil, judicial, and military powers exercised by the officers of the existing government in said islands shall be vested in such person or persons and shall be exercised in such manner as the President of the United States shall direct; and the President shall have power to remove said officers and fill the vacancies so occasioned.

The existing treaties of the Hawaiian Islands with foreign nations shall forthwith cease and determine, being replaced by such treaties as may exist, or as may be hereafter concluded, between the United States and such foreign nations. The municipal legislation of the Hawaiian Islands, not enacted for the fulfillment of the treaty (treaties) so extinguished , and not inconsistent with this treaty, nor contrary to the Constitution of the United States, nor to any existing treaty of the United States, shall remain in force until the Congress of the United States shall otherwise determine.

Until legislation shall be enacted extending the United States customs laws and regulations to the Hawaiian Islands, the existing customs relations of the Hawaiian Islands with the United States and other countries shall remain unchanged.

ARTICLE IV.

The public debt of the Republic of Hawaii, lawfully existing at the date of the exchange of the ratifications of this treaty, including the amounts due to depositors in the Hawaiian Postal Savings Bank, is hereby assumed by the Government of the United States; but the liability of the United States in this regard shall in no case exceed $4,000,000. So long, however, as the existing government and the present commercial relations of the Hawaiian Islands are continued as hereinbefore provided, said Government shall continue to pay the interest on said debt.

ARTICLE V.

There shall be no further immigration of Chinese into the Hawaiian Islands, except upon such conditions as are now or may hereafter be allowed by the laws of the United States, and no Chinese by reason of anything here contained shall be allowed to enter the United States from Hawaiian Islands.

ARTICLE VI.

The President shall appoint five commissioners, at least two of whom shall be residents of the Hawaiian Islands, who shall, as soon as reasonably practicable, recommend to Congress such legislation concerning the Territory of Hawaii as they shall deem necessary or proper.

ARTICLE VII.

This treaty shall be ratified by the President of the Republic of Hawaii, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, in accordance with the Constitution of the said Republic, on the one part; and by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, on the other, and the ratifications hereof shall be exchanged at Washington as soon as possible.

In witness whereof the respective plenipotentiaries have signed the above articles, and have hereunto affixed their seals.

Done in duplicate at the city of Washington this sixteenth day of June, one thousand eight hundred and ninety seven.

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RESOLUTION OF THE SENATE OF HAWAII RATIFYING THE TREATY OF ANNEXATION.

Be it resolved by the Senate of the Republic of Hawaii:

That the Senate hereby ratifies and advises and consents to the ratification by the President of the treaty between the Republic of Hawaii and the United States of America on the subject of the annexation of the Hawaiian Islands to the United States of America, concluded at Washington on the 16th day of June, A. D. 1897, which treaty is word for word as follows:

"The Republic of Hawaii and the United States of America, in view of the natural dependence of the Hawaiian Islands upon the United States, of their geographical proximity thereto, of the preponderant share acquired by the United States and its citizens in the industries and trade of said islands, and of the expressed desire of the Government of the Republic of Hawaii that those islands should be incorporated into the United States as an integral part thereof, and under its sovereignty, have determined to accomplish by treaty an object so important to their mutual and permanent welfare.

"To this end the high contracting parties have conferred full powers and authority upon their respectively appointed plenipotentiaries, to wit: "The President of the Republic of Hawaii, Francis March Hatch, Lorrin A. Thurston, and William A. Kinney.

"The President of the United States, John Sherman, Secretary of State of the United States.

"ARTICLE I.

"The Republic of Hawaii hereby cedes absolutely and without reserve to the United States of America all rights of sovereignty of whatsoever kind in and over the Hawaiian Islands and their dependencies; and it is agreed that all the territory of and appertaining to the Republic of Hawaii is hereby annexed to the United States of America under the name of the Territory of Hawaii.

"ARTICLE II.

"The Republic of Hawaii also cedes and hereby transfers to the United States the absolute fee and ownership of all public, government, or crown lands, public buildings or edifices, ports, harbors, military equipments, and all other public property of every kind and description belonging to the Government of the Hawaiian Islands, together with every right and appurtenance thereunto appertaining.

"The existing laws of the United States relative to public lands shall not apply to such lands in the Hawaiian Islands; but the Congress of the United States shall enact special laws for their management and disposition. Provided, that all revenue from or proceeds of the same, except as regards such part thereof as may be used or occupied for the civil, military, or naval purposes of the United States, or may be assigned for the use of the local government, shall be used solely for the benefit of the inhabitants of the Hawaiian Islands for educational and other public purposes.

"ARTICLE III.

"Until Congress shall provide for the government of such islands, all civil, judicial, and military powers exercised by the officers of the existing government in said islands shall be vested in such person or persons and shall be exercised in such manner as the President of the United States shall direct; and the President shall have power to remove said officers and fill the vacancies so occasioned.

"The existing treaties of the Hawaiian Islands with foreign nations shall forthwith cease and determine, being replaced by such treaties as may exist, or as may be hereafter concluded, between the United States and such foreign nations. The municipal legislation of the Hawaiian Islands, not enacted for the fulfillment of the treaty (treaties) so extinguished , and not inconsistent with this treaty, nor contrary to the Constitution of the United States, nor to any existing treaty of the United States, shall remain in force until the Congress of the United States shall otherwise determine.

"Until legislation shall be enacted extending the United States customs laws and regulations to the Hawaiian Islands, the existing customs relations of the Hawaiian Islands with the United States and other countries shall remain unchanged.

"ARTICLE IV.

"The public debt of the Republic of Hawaii, lawfully existing at the date of the exchange of the ratifications of this treaty, including the amounts due to depositors in the Hawaiian Postal Savings Bank, is hereby assumed by the Government of the United States; but the liability of the United States in this regard shall in no case exceed $4,000,000. So long, however, as the existing government and the present commercial relations of the Hawaiian Islands are continued as hereinbefore provided, said Government shall continue to pay the interest on said debt.

"ARTICLE V.

"There shall be no further immigration of Chinese into the Hawaiian Islands, except upon such conditions as are now or may hereafter be allowed by the laws of the United States, and no Chinese by reason of anything here contained shall be allowed to enter the United States from Hawaiian Islands.

"ARTICLE VI.

"The President shall appoint five commissioners, at least two of whom shall be residents of the Hawaiian Islands, who shall, as soon as reasonably practicable, recommend to Congress such legislation concerning the Territory of Hawaii as they shall deem necessary or proper.

"ARTICLE VII.

"This treaty shall be ratified by the President of the Republic of Hawaii, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, in accordance with the Constitution of the said Republic, on the one part; and by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, on the other, and the ratifications hereof shall be exchanged at Washington as soon as possible.

"In witness whereof the respective plenipotentiaries have signed the above articles, and have hereunto affixed their seals.

"Done in duplicate at the city of Washington this sixteenth day of June, one thousand eight hundred and ninety seven.

"[SEAL] (Sig.) FRANCIS MARCH HATCH.
"[SEAL] (Sig.) LORRIN A. THURSTON.
"[SEAL] (Sig.) WILLIAM A. KINNEY.
"[SEAL] (Sig.) JOHN SHERMAN."

I hereby certify that the foregoing resolution was unanimously adopted at the special session of the Senate of the Republic of Hawaii on the 9th day of September, A. D. 1897.

WILLIAM C. WILDER, President.
Attest:
J. F. CLAY,
Clerk of the Senate.

============

JOINT RESOLUTION OF THE U.S. SENATE AND U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, SIGNED BY PRESIDENT MCKINLEY, TO ACCEPT THE TREATY OF ANNEXATION OFFERED BY THE REPUBLIC OF HAWAII (also known as the "Newlands Resolution" named after the Congressman who introduced it)

Whereas the Government of the Republic of Hawaii having, in due form, signified its consent, in the manner provided by its constitution to cede absolutely and without reserve to whatsoever kind in and over the Hawaiian Islands and their dependencies, and also to cede and transfer to the United States the absolute fee and ownership of all public, government, or crown lands, public buildings or edifices, ports, harbors, military equipment, and all other public property of the Hawaiian Islands, together with every right and appurtenance thereunto appertaining: Therefore

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

That said cession is accepted, ratified, and confirmed, and that the said Hawaiian Islands and their dependencies be, and they are hereby, annexed as a part of the territory of the United States and are subject to the sovereign dominion thereof, and that all and singular the property and rights hereinbefore mentioned are vested in the United States of America.

The existing laws of the United States relative to public lands shall not apply to such lands in the Hawaiian Islands; but the Congress of the United States shall enact special laws for their management and disposition: Provided, That all revenue from or proceeds of the same, except as regards such part thereof as may be used or occupied for the civil, military, or naval purposes of the United States, or may be assigned for the use of the local government, shall be used solely for the benefit of the inhabitants of the Hawaiian Islands for educational and other public purposes.

Until Congress shall provide for the government of such islands all civil, judcial and military powers exercised by the officers of the existing government in said islands shall be vested in such person or persons and shall be exercised in such manner as the President of the United States shall direct; and the President shall have the power to remove said officers and fill the vacancies so occasioned.

The existing treaties of the Hawaiian Islands with foreign nations shall forthwith cease and determine, being replaced by such treaties as may exist, or as may be hereafter concluded, between the United States and such foreign nations. The municipal legislation of the Hawaiian Islands, not enacted for the fulfillment of the treaties so extinguished, and not inconsistent with this joint resolution nor contrary to the Constitution of the United States nor to any existing treaty of the United States, shall remain in force until the Congress of the United States shall otherwise determine.

Until legislation shall be enacted extending the United States customs laws and regulations to the Hawaiian Islands the existing customs relations of the Hawaiian Islands with the United States and other countries shall remain unchanged.

The public debt of the Republic of Hawaii, lawfully existing at the date of passage of this joint resolution, including the amounts due to depositors in the Hawaiian Postal Savings Bank, is hereby assumed by the Government of the United States; but the liability of the United States in this regard shall in no case exceed four million dollars. So long, however, as the existing government and the present commercial relations of the Hawaiian Islands are continued as hereinbefore provided said government shall continue to pay the interest on said debt.

There shall be no further immigration of Chinese into the Hawaiian Islands, except upon such conditions as are now or many hereafter be allowed by the laws of the United States; no Chinese, by reason of anything herein contained, shall be allowed to enter the United States from the Hawaiian Islands.

The President shall appoint five commissioners, at least two of whom shall be residents of the Hawaiian Islands, who shall, as soon as reasonably practicable, recommend to Congress such legislation concerning the Hawaiian Islands as they shall deem necessary or proper.

SEC. 2. That the commissioners hereinbefore provided for shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

SEC. 3. That the sum of one hundred thousand dollars, or so much thereof as may be necessary, is hereby appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, and to be immediately available, to be expended at the discretion of the President of the United States of America, for the purpose of carrying this joint resolution into effect.

SERENO E. PAYNE,
Speaker of the House of Representatives Pro Tempore.

GARRET A. HOBART,
Vice-President of the United States and President of the Senate.

Approved, July 7th, 1898.
WILLIAM McKINLEY

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EXCERPT FROM PRESIDENT MCKINLEY'S STATE OF THE UNION MESSAGE OF DECEMBER 6, 1897. The length of this excerpt indicates the importance he placed on ratifying the Treaty of Annexation.

http://www.thisnation.com/library/sotu/1897wm.html

State of the Union Address
William McKinley
6 December 1897

To the Senate and House of Representatives:

[About halfway down]

By a special message dated the 16th day of June last, I laid before the Senate a treaty signed that day by the plenipotentiaries of the United States and of the Republic of Hawaii, having for its purpose the incorporation of the Hawaiian Islands as an integral part of the United States and under its sovereignty. The Senate having removed the injunction of secrecy, although the treaty is still pending before that body, the subject may be properly referred to in this Message because the necessary action of the Congress is required to determine by legislation many details of the eventual union should the fact of annexation be accomplished, as I believe it should be.

While consistently disavowing from a very early period any aggressive policy of absorption in regard to the Hawaiian group, a long series of declarations through three-quarters of a century has proclaimed the vital interest of the United States in the independent life of the Islands and their intimate commercial dependence upon this country. At the same time it has been repeatedly asserted that in no event could the entity of Hawaiian statehood cease by the passage of the Islands under the domination or influence of another power than the United States. Under these circumstances, the logic of events required that annexation, heretofore offered but declined, should in the ripeness of time come about as the natural result of the strengthening ties that bind us to those Islands, and be realized by the free will of the Hawaiian State.

That treaty was unanimously ratified without amendment by the Senate and President of the Republic of Hawaii on the 10th of September last, and only awaits the favorable action of the American Senate to effect the complete absorption of the Islands into the domain of the United States. What the conditions of such a union shall be, the political relation thereof to the United States, the character of the local administration, the quality and degree of the elective franchise of the inhabitants, the extension of the federal laws to the territory or the enactment of special laws to fit the peculiar condition thereof, the regulation if need be of the labor system therein, are all matters which the treaty has wisely relegated to the Congress.

If the treaty is confirmed as every consideration of dignity and honor requires, the wisdom of Congress will see to it that, avoiding abrupt assimilation of elements perhaps hardly yet fitted to share in the highest franchises of citizenship, and having due regard to the geographical conditions, the most just provisions for self-rule in local matters with the largest political liberties as an integral part of our Nation will be accorded to the Hawaiians. No less is due to a people who, after nearly five years of demonstrated capacity to fulfill the obligations of self-governing statehood, come of their free will to merge their destinies in our body-politic.

The questions which have arisen between Japan and Hawaii by reason of the treatment of Japanese laborers emigrating to the Islands under the Hawaiian-Japanese convention of 1888, are in a satisfactory stage of settlement by negotiation. This Government has not been invited to mediate, and on the other hand has sought no intervention in that matter, further than to evince its kindliest disposition toward such a speedy and direct adjustment by the two sovereign States in interest as shall comport with equity and honor. It is gratifying to learn that the apprehensions at first displayed on the part of Japan lest the cessation of Hawaii's national life through annexation might impair privileges to which Japan honorably laid claim, have given place to confidence in the uprightness of this Government, and in the sincerity of its purpose to deal with all possible ulterior questions in the broadest spirit of friendliness.


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