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SC4.LL.Sovereignty means the source of power. In Islam, Allah is the source of all powers and laws (3:154, 12:40, 25:2, 67:1). It is Allah who knows what is good and what is bad for His servants. His say is final. Man is the vicegerent, the agent or the representative of Allah swt on earth (2:30, 6:165). Allah is thesovereign and man is His representative. Man should do as Allah commands him to do.The Islamic political system makes the ruler and the government responsible firstly to Allah and then to the people. The ruler and the ruled are the Khalifah of Allah and the ruler shall have to work for the welfare of the people according to the Qur’an and Sunnah. A ruler is a servent of the people of Islam. Both the ruler and the ruled will appear before Allah swt and account for their actionson the day of judgement. The responsibility of the ruler is heaver than the ruled. Any ordinary citizen of an Islamic state has the right to ask any question on any matter to the ruler andthe government.
Islam recognises the preferenceof one over the other only on the basis of Taqwa (piety or fear of God). One who fears Allah swt most isthe noblest in Islam (49:13).

Political System of Islam

Religion and politics are one and the same in Islam. They are intertwined. We already know that Islam is a complete system of life and politics is very much a part of our collective life. Just as Islam teaches us how to say Salah, observe Sawm, pay Zakah and undertake Hajj, so it teaches us how to run a state, from a government, elect councillors and members of parliament, make treaties and conduct business and commerce. Bear in mind that Islamic ruling system is not the same as the ruling system we have in the non-islamic countries.

A detailed discussion of the Islamic political system would be desirable, but we have to content ourselves with its basic principles and main features.

The Islamic Political System is based on the folloing main principles:

1. Sovereignty of Allah swt.

Sovereignty means the source of power. In Islam, Allah is the source of all powers and laws (3:154, 12:40, 25:2, 67:1). It is Allah who knows what is good and what is bad for His servants. His say is final.
All human beings unitedly cannot change His law. The Qu’an says, "As for the thief -male and female, chope off their hands. It is the reward of their own actions and exemplary punishment from Allah. Allah is Mighty, Wise." (5:37).
According to Islam, this order is unchangeable by any parliament or any government which claims itself to be Islamic (5:44, 2:229). There are many more laws in the Qur’an concerning our life and those laws must be put to practice by an Islamic state for the greater good of human beings.

2. Khilafah of Mankind (Vicegerency of man).

Man is the vicegerent, the agent or the representative of Allah swt on earth (2:30, 6:165). Allah is the sovereign and man is His representative. Man should do as Allah commands him to do. But he has a choice to either obey or disobey Allah and, because of this freedom of choice, he will be tested on the day of judgement. In the political sense, Khilafah means that human beings should implement the will of Allah on earth as His deputy or agent. As Allah’s agents, human beings will carry out the will of Allah swt on His behalf as a trust (Amanah). Khilafah is a trust. An agent is always expected to behave as his master wants him to behave (10:14).

3. Legislation by Shura (Consultation).

Islam teaches us to run a government, to make legislation and decisions by the process of Shura. Shura means "to take decisions by consultation and participation" (3:159, 42:38). This is an important part of the Islamic political system. There is no scope for despotism in Islam. The Qur’an and the Sunnah will be the basis of legislation in Islam.

4. Accountability of government.

The Islamic political system makes the ruler and the government responsible firstly to Allah and then to the people. The rular and the government are elected by the people to exercise ‘powers on their behalf. We must remember here that both the ruler and the ruled are the Khalifah of Allah and the ruler shall have to work for the welfare of the people according to the Qur’an and Sunnah. A ruler is a servent of the people of Islam. Both the ruler and the ruled will appear before Allah swt and account for their actions on the day of judgement. The responsibility of the ruler is heaver than the ruled.

Any ordinary citizen of an Islamic state has the right to ask any question on any matter to the ruler and the government.

5. Independence of judiciary.

In the Islamic political system, the Judiciary is independent of the Executive. The head of the state or any government minister could be called to the court if necessary. They would be treated no differently from other citizens. The Qur’an has many injunctions about justice. One of the main functions of the Islamic state is to ensure justice to all citizens (4:58, 4:135, 5:8). The ruler and the government has no right to interfere in the system of justice.

6. Equality before law.

The Islamic political system ensures equality for all citizens before the law. It does not recognise any discrimination on the basis of language, colour, territory, sex or descent. Islam recognises the preference of one over the other only on the basis of Taqwa (piety or fear of God). One who fears Allah swt most is the noblest in Islam (49:13).

Conclusion

The duty of an Islamic state is to establish Salah and Zakah; promote the right and forbid the wrong (22:44). The state is responsible for the welfare of all its citizens - Muslims and non-Muslims alike. It must guarantee the basic necessities of life. All citizens of the Islamic state shall enjoy freedom of belief, thought, conscience and speech. Every citizen shall be free to develop his potential, improve his capacity, earn and possess. A citizen shall enjoy the right to support or oppose any government policy which he thinks right or wrong with the following in mind.:

The Islamic state is a duty bound to implement the laws of the Qur’an and the Sunnah. The Qur’an strongly denounces those who do not decide their matters by Allah’s revelations (5:42-50).

The Islamic state shall ensure a fair distribution of wealth. Islam does not believe in equal distribution as it is against the law of creation.

There is not a single perfect Islamic state in the world today. There are many Muslim countries. An Islamic state is based on the model of Prophet Muhammad’s (phuh) state in Madinah while a Muslim state is one which has a majority Muslim population and some Islamic features.
However, organised efforts have been going on in many Muslim countries to establish truly Islamic states. Al-ikhwanul Muslimun in the Middle East, Muzahid or Taliban in Afganistan, the Jama’at-e-Islami in Pakistan, and Kashmir, Jehaad movement in Bangladesh, (infor. source- BBC UK) Dewan Dakwah Islamia (Islamic Dawah Council) in Indonesia, Al-Muhajirun in Britain, and Hizb-ut-Tahrir in most advanced Islamic (muslim population) countries are some of the Islamic movements and parties which have been working for the re-establishment of Allah’s law on Allah’s land.

Let us pray and hope that a real Islamic state will emerge and guide the world towards justice, fair play and peace (very soon -if God wills).



The numbers in brackets represents Reference in the qur'anfor example (4:1) means qur'an Chapter 4 Verse 1.
ref..ISLAM: Beliefs and Teachings --by.. GHULAM SARWAR --Director of the MuslimEducational Trust.

Systems of Islam
Islamic Law (Shari'ah)
Economic system of Islam
Social system of Islam

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