THE

LAW OF MOSES

AS A RULE OF NATIONAL AND INDIVIDUAL LIFE

and
THE ENIGMATICAL ENUNCIATION OF
DIVINE PRINCIPLES AND PURPOSES

By Robert Roberts


ANALYSIS OF CHAPTERS

I.--LAW: ITS NEED AND BEAUTY

Man's need of law--Man innately lawless--False philosophy--But law must be suitable--Systems of law--The Mosaic only divine---Christ's endorsement thereof --Importance of study because divine--Its admirable character--Its public rehearsal in main features after Israel's entrance into the land--Its commendation by Moses before his death--Aim of the law as a mouth-shutter--Also its enigmatical shadowings of present rupture and future reconciliation--Its mission in clearing the way for the grace of God by bringing man under condemnation.

II.--BEFORE THE LAW OF MOSES

The world not without divine law before Moses--The times of Abraham. Noah, Adam--The flood--The tower of Babel--Melchizedek, the centre of divine law among descendants of Noah--A new start in Abraham through faith--Not a new principle but the new form of an old principle--Adaptation to altering circumstances--Divine law and priesthood as old as Eden--Every obedient man his own priest from Abel to Abraham--The interval between the covenant with Abraham and the exodus of Israel from Egypt under Moses--Lingering traces of the knowledge of God--Balaam, the Egyptian priests--Perverted remnants of knowledge--Heathen idolatries and ritualisms corrupt vestiges of knowledge from Noah--From Abraham to Moses--Perfecting of individuals--The bulk of Israel little better than the Egyptians--Ezekiel's testimony--Why add God redeem them ?--Their organization as a nation, a measure with divine aims irrespective of their character-Israel made willing by affliction in Egypt--The negotiations between Moses and Pharaoh--The departure on the night of the Passover--Through the Red Sea to the Wilderness--The call of Moses to Sinai--The covenant proposed to the people.

III.--AT SINAI

Meeting with God--A divine address to the whole nation from the summit of Sinai--Recital of the ten commandments in the hearing of the whole assembly, by "a great voice"--The tables of stone--Their description as "the moral law" objectionable--Morality not an element in the nature of things--Morality extraneous to man and dependent wholly on the law of God--Hence killing and not killing right by turns--"Moral difficulties of the Old Testament" imaginary --Due to wrong ideas of moral law--God's own description of the ten command-ments-The covenant between Him and Israel--The rest of the law mere appurtenances and amplifications--Unsuitable and unjust to regard the ten commandments in any other light than that in which the Mosaic record exhibits them--A speech from God as the basis of a national covenant--Afterwards "done away"--In what sense done away--The new law in Christ revives their excellent rules of action--The law of Moses unable to confer life because of human weakness--But made operative through Christ, who was born under it and obedient in all things--Learned misconceptions of the subject through wrong views of human nature.

IV.--THE TEN COMMANDMENTS

Analysis of the ten commandments--Their order--God, family, and other men--Their beauty compared with humanly evolved systems--Greek and Roman civilizations---Contemporary laws of Canaan, Assyria, and Egypt still worse--The uprise of the Mosaic law in their midst a miracle--The first commandment mits incorporation of Israel's deliverance--The meaning of this--Appeal to what Israel knew, and a guarantee of the historical veracity of the exodus to all subsequent generations--The Decalogue and the exodus bound together--Philosophy of the exodus--That God might be known--Revelation a necessity --Knowledge of God rests on the evidence of the senses--The Mosaic achievements in Egypt--Our conceptions of all scientific phenomena must be subordinated to this--The logic of the first commandment irresistible--The second commandment--God's jealousy of the honour that belongs to Himself alone--The age of idolatry, continued in the age of statues, busts and memorials. Likenesses of Greek and Roman celebrities, but none of God's servants--Reflex effect of the commandment--Jealousy as affirmable of God--Its difference from the human sentiment--Its basis in wisdom and goodness--The third commandment--Reverence for the name of God--Taking the name of God in vain.

V.--THE SABBATH LAW

The fourth commandment--More artificial in a sense than the rest---The Sabbath law exclusively Israelitish--A beneficial institution--The British nation and the Sabbath--The meaning of the Sabbath and the spiritual objects of its institution--Its observance before the law--Its association with the six days' creation work--Scientific objections--The earth more than six thousand years old--The Bible account of creation not inconsistent with this, but on the contrary involving it---The Pre-Adamite state of the earth--The creation era--The angelic agents employed--Hebrew elohim and Greek angeloi--Their resting and being refreshed--The creation work--"Let there be light"--Light before the sun was made (to appear)--The explanation--The making of a "firmament" resulting in cloud and water--The formation of the seas, and the vegetation on the upheaved land--Next the appearance of the sun, moon and stars--Dr. Thomas on the subject--The explanation apparently strained and unnatural, but not really so--The rule for settling the doubtful and the unknown--Christ's endorsement of Genesis compelling unreserved acceptance--The possibility if this without collision of truth--The statement that the Deity "rested and was refreshed"--The Sabbath also a memorial of the Egyptian deliverance.

VI.--THE SABBATH IN GENTILE TIMES

The Sabbath among the Jews in modern times--The Sabbath in Gentile Europe--Its observance a result of the establishment of "Christianity" and a proof of Christ's resurrection--Substitution of the first for the seventh day --How it came about --The modern contention for the observance of the seventh day--Its unfounded character--The contentious activity of the Judaizers in Paul's day--Paul's opposition to them--His prophecy of their triumph--The Constantine church not an apostolic community, yet an instrument of preliminary blessedness to the nations of Europe--The Mosaic Sabbath not for the friends of Christ--Christ in relation to the law--The end of it--The disannulling of it--The Sabbath law displayed--The Sabbath in the days of Christ--His attitude anti-Sabbatarian ---even examples--The apostles and the Sabbath--Their opposition to all observance of days--"The Christian Sabbath" a mistaken phrase--The breaking of bread on the first day of the week a different thing--The Sabbath in the age to come--The Sabbath in Eden--No argument for times under Christ--The true Sabbath-keeping in him.

VII.--THE REST OF THE TEN COMMANDMENTS

Negative commandments--Not to do--How much human well-being depends on this --Man's power to injure--Regulated by law, but law binding by authority only, and authority arising from divinity--The necessity for clear views here--Danger of setting aside obedience as the rule of righteousness--Moral laxities due to wrong theories--Submission wrongly regarded as a symptom of intellectual weakness--The FIFTH COMMANDMENT--Making light of father and mother--Modern lack of reverence--The only cure--Wisdom of the commandment to honour father and mother--Good effects on the children--Its reasonableness in view of the part performed by parents--Respect for parents among the Jews--Preparation for the other commandments--The SIXTH COMMANDMENT--"Thou shalt not kill"--Divine law alone creates the moral aspect of murder--Indebtedness of modern civilization to the effect of this law in many generations --Power of law as a protection to life--A higher protection in love which came after law--Under Christ, anger a crime--Obligation to love, one of the obligations of the truth--Extending even to enemies--An apparent impossibility, but possible when Christ is loved--The secret of triumph-Coming harvest of love--The SEVENTH COMMANDMENT--The sexual affinity--Its power and its blessedness when regulated by law--Necessity for iron barriers--Sophistries born of lust-Ignorant rebellions of all kinds--The two principles which settle the whole question--Libertinism--A short and decisive answer to all demoralizing theories--The law of Christ a stage higher--Impure thoughts forbidden--Powerful self-circumcision--The EIGHTH COMMANDMENT--Not a matter of course---Wrongful taking made such only by divine prohibition--Atheism undermining the foundations of property, leads to socialism and anarchy--The divine recognition of personal possession as the basis of human society--Its regulation only needed to make the earth an abode of joyful life---Individual possession in the perfect age--The NINTH COMMANDMENT---The beauty of truth--The fate of liars--THE TENTH COMMANDMENT--The finishing excellence---An uncovetous eye--Superb character of the whole law.

VIII.--THE LAND

The law of Moses a civil polity--More adapted than modem systems to promote social well-being--The modem system a failure--Settlement of the people on the land--Hurtful monopoly prevented by the law of Moses---pro rata division among families on the basis of inalienable inheritance--A nation of "landed gentry"--Self-extinguishing mortgages--Permanent beggary impossible--Creation of large estates prevented--Preservation of the social equilibrium--The divine land-law full of blessedness; the human, full of woe--Possession of the land married to the worship of God the coming cure for the world's evils--Not "nationalization" but familization the true system--Objection on the score of increasing population --Every seventh year a year of rest for the' land--The spontaneous harvest of that year, the property of the poor--The miraculous double increase of the sixth year--Levites to have no inheritance, but only residence at city centres--A spiritualizing element in the population--Imitation in the parochial system of Christendom--The law a failure in Israel's hands--Its resuscitation and success under Christ.

IX.--PRIVATE LIFE AND PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS

The land in the possession of the people, but something else needful to prevent stolid dulness--Laws for the interweaving of God with every occupation of life---The law as to things not to be eaten and things not to be touched--Rest every seventh day--The rite of circumcision--Birth of children--Presentation and redemption of the first born--Personal diseases--Defiling contacts--God continually before the consciences of faithful men--The uncleannesses of the law, ceremonial, not physical--Not the less powerful as a felt experience--The law of taboo--Creation of the idea of holiness--National institutions--The feasts--The passover--The feast of tabernacles--Extensive comings together for a good time--A contrast to Gentile holidays--Conviviality with a rational and spiritual aim--Celebration of the national deliverance--The calling of God to mind--A joyous, subdued, ennobled nation--Presentation of the firstfruits--Charms of the feast of tabernacles--Most beneficent of public institutions--Calculated to produce a happy people.

X.--DEALINGS OF MAN WITH MAN

Phylacteries--The place for God in human life--The law of Moses as a policy of civil life--Gentile imitations--Responsibility for effects of individual action on others--Accidental injuries--The unprotected roof--The goring ox--The unguarded pit--The straying beast--Losing borrowed articles--Another man's wife--Theft--Restitution--Sale of the thief--Stoning him on refusal to work--Carlyle's rapture--Anti-slavery sentiment---Immortal-soulism and modern objections to the law of Moses--Comparison with Egyptian and Assyrian practices--An enemy's interests to be conserved--Just judgment in all things --Majorities not to rule in such matters--The condemnation of tale-bearing, revenge, and cruel sport--Inculcation of mercy to the blind, the deaf, the poor, the distressed--Lending to be ready and free of usury--Liberal-handedness in the harvest field--Honour to grey hairs--Protection of female chastity--Death to the adulterer--The law, holy, just, and good, but Israel disobedient-- A time of reformation coming.

XI.--THE COVENANT AT SINAI AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE TABERNACLE

First visit of Moses to the summit of Mount Sinai--Readiness of the people to promise obedience when he came down--The writing and reading of the laws added to the ten commandments--Ceremony of ratification of the covenant to obey--Concealed meanings--Silence with regard to the objects of what was commanded to be done--"All things by the law purged with blood"--The connection of this fact with death as a thing due---But the blood-shedding, being that of animals, only typical--The antitype in Christ--His own subjection to the purifying process--Paul's testimony and the common view--The lesson of sacrifice: not human punishment but divine vindication--The enforcement of the will of God as the law of human action--Heathen religions and substitutions--Moses and Aaron and seventy elders invited to see the glory of God on the mount after ratification of the covenant---The parallel in Christ's ascension--The throne of Eternal Light--Immensities of universal space--Six days cloud and silence--Adumbration of divine chronology in the shadowed substance--The "devouring fire on the top of the mount"--A counterpart--Command to make the Tabernacle --Exhibition of the plan to the eyes of Moses--Specially qualified artisans for the work of construction--The practical significance of the divine care for accuracy in the matter--The people invited to provide the materials of manufacture--The significance--The raw material for the final divine encampment on earth furnished by the human race--The voluntary character of the supply--Free-will the basis of God's work with man--The making of the tabernacle--Its details as "the form of knowledge and the truth"--Christendom astray in rejecting the divine pattern--Every son of God a miniature tabernacle.

XII.--ALLEGORICAL TRANSACTIONS AT SINAI

Specifications for the construction of the tabernacle--Twice set forth in a "thou-shalt make" and an "and-he-made" series--Meaning of this apparently needless duplication--"Establishment" by doubling--Also the two phases of divine procedure: first plan; then fulfilment; command, then obedience; prophecy then history--Mutiny of Israel during the absence of Moses in the mount--The anger of Moses on coming down and finding the people in the act of idolatry--His flinging the tables of the law out of his hand--Parallel in Christ---Also in the return of Moses to the top of the mount to intercede for Israel--The exhibition of the divine glory to Moses between the "thou-shalt-make" and the "and-he-made" phases of the work--The glory of his face when he came down--The need for a veil--The historical counterpart in the days of Christ, and in days to come--The breaking and replacing of the tables of the law--The discernible parallel in the course of events since and in the prophetic sequel--The strangeness of such occurrences being made typical of future events--In reality an added beauty of the work of God--The pattern and quantities of the tabernacle--A meeting place with God and not merely a portable convenience--The order of making, different from the order of specification--A probable reason--The ark and the tables of the law--The cherubic figures--The throne of God in Israel's midst--The shadows involved in their construction--God in manifestation--To be known only by revelation--The position of the ark at the very centre of Israel's encampment--To be approached only by sacrifice--One of the secrets of popular distaste.

XIII.--THE ARK AND ITS CONTENTS

The tabernacle as an intimation of incompleteness in the union between God and Israel--Also as a prophecy of the way in which true union would be effected--Substance and shadow--Christ the way in head and body--The ark as a container --Its contents--First, the tables of stone--Typical of the divine law in the heart---Glorious state when this is affirmable of all men--Second, Aaron's budded rod--Its history--Typical of divine choice and appointment as the basis of acceptable service--Divine purpose at the root of human well-being--Its budding as a type of the resurrection--The golden pot of manna: eternal life through Christ---The material of the ark: wood covered with gold--A prophecy of tried faith and resurrection recompense.--The blood-sprinkled mercy seat and cherubim all of gold--The perfect mediator--The glory between the Cherubim, the participation of the Eternal Father, in salvation through Christ--God at every stage--The crown of the ark, intimation of royalty--The rings of, pilgrim mobility in this state--The poles of, qualified carriers--Staves always in their place, faithful men always at work--The golden censer--Nadab's and Abihu's disobedience and death--Incense typical of prayer--The sweetness of the incense and its smallness--The antitype in Christ--Prayer a pleasure to God--Prayer in the immortal state--Praise its chief element--The memory of the one great sacrifice in the age to come.

XIV.--OUTSIDE THE VEIL IN THE HOLY PLACE

The holy of helios a meeting place with God--A truth lost sight of by natural thinkers, that God cannot be discovered or communed with, apart from His own disclosures of Himself--"THERE will I meet thee"--A revelation and a prophecy--The day when the curse is removed and complete communion established--The present a time of divine silence though not of divine inaction--The veil concealing the ark--Why it was there--Its significance of flesh-nature in its Christ form--Rending of the veil as to death and resurrection--Composition of the veil--Different materials blended--The significance of this complexity--The fine-twined linen--Sinlessness--The divine sonship of Jesus--"Josephism"--The scarlet significant of sin--How this applied to Jesus, a sinless man--The babe of Bethelem--Adamic flesh and blood--A sinless man subject to the consequences of sin--The difficulties raised---Chiefly of Romish origin--The blue and the purple--Healing and royalty--All the foreshadowings realized in the righteous : son of David--The four pillars on which the veil was suspended--Do they denote the "four evangelists" ?--The gold hooks and silver sockets--Outside the veil in the holy place--No wisdom--No light except from the seven-branched candlestick--The significance in probation--The oil and the beauty of the oil--The trimming of the lamps morning and evening--The daily reading of the Scriptures--No "light of nature" adequate to the revelation of God--"Natural religion" a myth--Will worship--The incense altar in front of the veil--Altar of sacrifice outside--The incense altar inside, a speaking symbol of the essentiality of prayer to acceptable worship--No strange incense or strange fire--God's own truth the basis of approach--The blood-sprinkling on the altar of incense once a year, an intimation that contact with the sacrifice of Christ is essential to acceptable prayer--No relation to the stranger in any way--The table of shewbread--Twelve cakes, twelve tribes--Israelitish character of the whole polity of true religion--Salvation pertaining to the Jews--Modern forgetfulness of this--The divine plan one from the beginning.

XV.--OUTSIDE THE TABERNACLE--AMONG ITS BOARDS AND COVERINGS

The incense on the shewbread--The eating of the bread by the priests--The gold-lined walls of the tabernacle a powerful condemnation of the modern attitude towards faith--The reasonable character of faith as an exacted condition of divine acceptability--The vision of the golden city--The curtains at the door of the tabernacle--The material of the curtains the same as that of the veil--The meaning of this--The same Christ in another relation--The five pillars, five men permanently distinguished in the work of preaching Jesus as the door--The sockets of brass--The boards composing the tabernacle--The mechanical compactness of the whole structure--A probable spiritual significance--The boards considered as types of individual men--The four corner pairs braced together--Prominent divine servants in couples at turning points in the nation's history--A structural parable with doctrinal and prophetic significances--The coverings laid over the tabernacle--first, a composite gold-hooked fabric in ten parts, of similar material to the veil--second, a larger covering of goat material tacked together with brass hooks--third, a covering of red ram's skins, and fourth, of badger or seal skin--The literal purpose of the coverings--The spiritual significance, both as to %he material and the method of make-up--first, the Christ body--second, ecclesiasticism--third, the civil power--fourth, nature.

XVI.--THE COURT OF THE TABERNACLE

Tabernacle fenced off by a curtain wall of linen hung on wood pillars in brass sockets--The material--Its significance in righteousness--The world outside the divine economy--"They that are in the flesh cannot please God"--Men must come inside the walls of righteousness--The four pillars of the gate, the gospel narrators--The 56 pillars of the court, notable servants of God--Significance of the brazen sockets, the setting in the earth, the shittim wood of the pillars and the silver mountings--The uncircumcised not eligible for entrance--Nature, object and appointment of circumcision--Obedience and not gratification the ground of acceptance--The common thought opposed to truth--Invented religions of no final value--Natural religion a myth--The lesson of the tabernacle --God's appointment the basis of acceptable approach--Circumcision plus sacrifice in the worshippers--The brazen altar of burnt-offering inside the court--The necessity and meaning of sacrifice--First in type, then in Christ--Why animal sacrifice was inadequate--The truth proclaimed by all sacrifice, that man is separated from God and can only return in God's way--The popular fallacy about being "good" as the way to be saved--The relative positions of God and man forgotten--The Gospel and the Mosaic institution at one in declaring man's position to be hopeless apart from God's own methods and appointments--The laver--After sacrifice, washing---Confutation of modern views--"The blood" only an ingredient in the process of salvation--Probation--After reconciliation, reformation--After death (and resurrection), the judgment---Correspondence of the Christ-doctrine and the Mosaic parable.

XVII.--THE PRIESTS AND THEIR ATTIRE

The setting-up of the tabernacle necessitated intermediaries--Israel's uncleanness --Mercy to be shown but not at the sacrifice of holiness--God would be approached only through a man of His own choice, assisted by men of His own appointment-Aaron and his sons-Qualifications-The antitype in Christ--Christ as both sacrifice and priest--The brethren or Christ and the sons of Aaron--The priests to be dressed in a particular way, "for glory and for beauty" --The beautiful meanings condensed into this expression--The ways of man naturally base and hideous--The works of the flesh and the works of the Spirit---The great contrast between the natural and the spiritual--The true meaning of the word "spiritual"--The antitypical glory and beauty of the Aaronic garments --The materials--God in every aspect of them--Man acceptable only when clothed in vestments of divine origin and significance--The condemnation of all human invention in religion--The ephod--The order of investiture--The coat--The girdle of the coat---The robe with bells and pomegranates, the bottom fringe--The ephod and its attachments--(shoulder buckles and breastplate)--the most complicated, beautiful, and significant of all the priestly garments--The Urim and the Thummim--The mitre---The plate of pure gold on the forehead, inscribed "Holiness to the Lord"--The clothed high priests "bearing the iniquity of the holy things", a strange expression become intelligible--The antitype in Christ.

XVIII.--THE CONSECRATION OF AARON AND HIS SONS

The tabernacle made in twelve months after the exodus--Setting it up--Investiture of Aaron--Washing with water--The antitype in Christ---A difficulty dissipated --Different sorts of the same nature--Jesus' human nature mentally washed by the Spirit--Putting on the coat--The antitype--The ephod with its adjuncts of glory and beauty--The anointing with the holy oil--Typical of the anointing with the Spirit---The sprinkling of the oil and sacrificial blood upon every article in the tabernacle--The antitypical application--An objection as to the uncleanness of the children of Israel--The difficulty experienced by various thinkers as to Christ---His sacrifice "for himself" first---The statement that it was so and the "necessity" that it should be so--The blending and poising of apparently opposing principles--The end of all difficulty in the reception of the testified facts--For himself that it might be for us--The contrast between Christ as he now is and as he was--A "body prepared" for the abolition of death--A reverence for Christ "not according to knowledge"--The condemnation of sin in the flesh--An inspired expression defining a truth not in collision with any other--God's objects in the case the key--The relations of the Creator and the created--Forgiveness after the amende honorable--The significance of bloodshedding--The declaration of the righteousness of God--Inspired definition of the object of the death of Christ---Jesus not to be regarded as an individual merely, but as the representative of his people--"Crucified with Christ"--Forgiveness through the forbearance of God--The curse of the law brought on Christ by the mode of his death--The whole principle--Redemption achieved in Christ for us to have on conditions--Destruction of the typical analogies of the Law of Moses by the erroneous views of the death of Christ.

XIX.--THE FINAL DEDICATION

Inauguration of the daily service of the tabernacle--The offering of the ram of burnt offering and the ram of consecration--A counterpart in Christ concealed by some views--Roman Catholic and Protestant views--Other views--Christ cannot be kept out of his own sacrifice--The bullock carried out of the camp and the ram not so carried out--Right ear, right hand, right foot touched with the blood of consecration--Waving of the parts in the hands of Aaron--The accompaniments of unleavened bread, oiled cake, and wafer--The significance--Active, joyful, holy life--Realized in Christ's present state--The deeper meaning of the consecration services--"So hath the Lord commanded" but with fore-shadowings afterwards intimated--Purposed metamorphosis of the race by voluntary sacrifice--Only a partial experience now--The future---Activity--"Doing his pleasure" a cheering prospect---Eating of part of the ram--Seven days in succession--The surplus destroyed--"Too late"--The eighth day of the service typical of post-millennial experience--Israel on their faces before the manifested glory of the Lord--The sacrificial foundation of eternal glory always in remembrance.

XX.--THE ROUTINE SERVICE OF THE TABERNACLE

The tabernacle ready--Its services meaningless mummery to the naturalist--its real character as means of creating the conception of holiness--its immediate object and its secondary significance--Misapplications in the ecclesiasticisms of the age--Church consecrations--Ritualisms--- Semi-Mosaic religionism not without its use--Routine services of the tabernacle daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly--The daily incense, lamp-trimming and lamb-sacrifice (morning and evening)--The counterpart in daily life---The light, Bible reading--The incense, daily prayer--The daily sacrifice, Christ in the head, heart and hand of true worshippers--The daily meat and wine offering--Strength and gladness in the service of God--Mosaic condemnation of Laodiceanism and the loose thoughts of moralists--The Sabbath day in the tabernacle--Double services: why?--The new moon celebrations--Benefits conferred by the moon--Appreciation of the works of God--The motions of nature in their relations to the contriving energy of God --God's delight in the recognition of His wisdom--The new moon in the age to come--A succession of joyful activities in the new heavens and new earth.

XXI.--THE ANNUAL SERVICES

Several annual services in the tabernacle--The year in the life of man--The Passover --Not only Israel's deliverance from Egypt, but the highest spiritual attainments typified--A significant association--Moses and Christ the two poles of God's great work--The world's scepticism as to Moses an insult to Christ who endorsed him, and to God who appointed the passover--The recognition of the exodus required at our hands--Our generation condemned, and its clerical leaders in unbelief--The feasts of the firstfruits, founded on an institute of nature--God's beneficence in the harvest, yet the Egyptian deliverance to be interwoven in its thanksgiving services--The special services in the tabernacle--The wave-sheaf followed by the offering of a lamb--In seven weeks, on the completion of the harvest, two loaves of the new flour, accompanied by the sacrifice of seven lambs--The significances--Gratitude for the God-given bread of the field to be mixed with the acknowledgment of sinnership in blood-shedding--A prophecy of the sinless man through whom alone God will be approached in worship--Sinners not acceptable without the name of Christ on them--Human resentment of this appointment--The firstfruits in the antitype of Christ and his people--The two phases: the single sheaf and the two loaves seven weeks after--Ascension and Pentecost--A chronological inexactness with probable design--The feast of ingathering--The most elaborate of the tabernacle services --The seventh month--first day, a holy convocation: tenth day, day of atonement: in five days after, the construction and occupation of arboreal booths --The natural charms of such a feast--The numerous but gradually-diminishing sacrifices in the tabernacle--The Kingdom typified--The grand assembly on the eighth day, the close of the Kingdom.

XXII.--VOLUNTARY SERVICES

Various occasions of voluntary service--The altar of earth--Or stone undressed--The correspondence in Christ--Josephite fathership excluded--Divine origin of Jesus--"Voluntary will" as an element in the sacrifices--A far-reaching principle, at the root of the problem of evil--The attitude of the atheist and the meta-physician-Facts and philosophic triflers--Human power of choice--God's aims in creation--His pleasure in man, but in what relation ?--Obedience free and uncompelled--The door opened for evil in the conditions of the highest good--Evil came in through this door--Man guesses: the Bible reveals--The final triumph--The process slow because the result stupendous--Means and ends--Man allowed to fall, that he may in the end know God in His true supremacy and kindness--The myriads who perish--No difficulty in view of man's mortality --The bright morning of God's perfected work--Responsiblity and judgment as arising out of free will--The relation of light---The fatalism of the Turk--The gloom of the Calvinist---Hurtful reactions in modern libertinism.

XXIII.--THE MALE ELEMENT IN SACRIFICE

Form of approach to God prescribed--Not anything acceptable--Cain and Abel--The killing of a living creature---The pouring out of its blood--The divine explanation --A "male without blemish"--The sex feature prominent--The female subordinate--Why ?--Historical facts and natural adaptations--"The new woman" fighting against nature--Man having the first place in redemption--Salvation by a man, not by a woman--The woman subordinately instrumental--Relative .positions of man and woman--Beautiful when determined by law--Naturalism contrary to nature--Human folly on the subject--The so-called "divine feminine" in the Godhead--All creation one stuff in different forms--The lessons of a zoological collection--Its application to the difference between man and woman--The same stuff differently organized--The organic power rooted in divine will--God manifestly in the mysteries of nature, but not to be found till He brought Himself near in revelation--God one and as lovely as we could wish Him to be--A great King not a Queen, but with more than a queen's loveliness--The eternal masculine---The burnt sacrifice, a male figure of Christ--The anti-typical offerers--"Faith in his blood"--Rest--The sacrificial sheep or goat--Preparation of the Lamb of God--Difficulty to human understanding because men try to square it with human thoughts--Doves and pigeons in sacrifice--The same lessons as applied to Christ---"Crop and feathers" cast aside--Body cloven, but not parted--Spiritual analogies.

XXIV.--MEAT OFFERINGS AND PEACE OFFERINGS

Love-offerings--Gifts to God--Highest pleasure to God and man--Meat offerings acceptable through the priest and on the altar only--Easy to understand when divine teaching allowed to prevail--Christ the way--Meat offerings to be drowned in oil--The place of joy in the service of God--For sinners to mourn, for the righteous to rejoice--No place for the gloomy religion of the cloister and the cell--Meat offerings to be garnished with frankincense--The place of praise--Man likes it but God claims it and permits it to man only when he has had his superlative portion--All meat offerings to be seasoned with salt--The antitype--Sound, wholesome savory principle--Hearty loving intelligence essential to acceptability--No leaven--A serf-propagating thing tending to deterioration--Analogy to the operations of "malice and wickedness"--No liberality to God acceptable if offered with a wicked mind--Such an act possible--Honey also forbidden--The sweetness of self-gratification--Enjoyments permitted and enjoyments forbidden--Self-glory the anti-typical honey--The use made of the meat offering--Part burnt and part eaten--The significance--God and man conjoined in the object of gift--Oblation of the first cut corn, waved, not burnt--The probable meaning--A meat offering from the first cut corn might be burnt--The reason--The meat offering as the expression of friendship--The peace offering, pointing to reconciliation--Must be a living creature for sacrifice --Might be a female--The reason--Mother of the Saviour--Woman saved by the "child-hearing"--Offerings to be brought by the offerer, and not by deputy--The fat as well as the blood--Why--The priests to have the chief part---Mis-application by the clergy--The antitypical house of Aaron.

XXV.--BURNT OFFERINGS, SIN OFFERINGS, AND TRESPASS OFFERINGS

Compulsory and voluntary offerings--An adaptation to spiritual need--The diversity of offerings a perplexity at first--The difference between the different classes of offering--Gradations of atonement--Different degrees of sin--Presumptuous sin unatonable--The burnt offering--Why so-called--The type involved consumption of sin nature--The crucifixion--Flesh and blood to cease from the earth--Those who deny Christ's inclusion in his own sacrifice--The removal of the ashes in the morning--The change of the mortal in the day of Christ--The sin offering--Sins of ignorance--Why should they require atonement---An escape from a false position--The ignorant sin recognizable when it "comes to knowledge"--An offering required, forgiveness offered--The reasonableness of the whole procedure--No accountability where there is no knowledge, but sin, sin, all the same--The offering for sins of ignorance--Wherein they differed from other offerings--An intenser repudiation of sins of ignorance--Why ?-Unconscious sin more hateful than known and acknowledged sin--How often may we grieve Him in our ignorance when self-pleased--The Laodiceans--Necessity for judging ourselves by the word--Cause of fear, ground of comfort --"The spirit itself helpeth our infirmities"--The antitypical eating of the sacrifices--The danger of false theories of the sacrifice of Christ--Why the flesh of the sin offering "most holy"--The antitype in Christ--The trespass offering--the distinction from the sin offering--All trespass is sin, but all sin not trespass --"All manner of sin forgiven unto men, except blaspheming of the Holy Spirit" --The combined effect of all the sacrifices.

XXVI.--MOTHERHOOD

Special impurities and special purifications---Childbirth--A period of seclusion for the mother--Then sacrifice--Spiritual intimations--Propagation a provisional thing Marriage absent from the perfect state--Males to be circumcised the eighth day--The mother remaining 33 days unclean--Probable antitype--Uncleanness for a female just double the number of days--Good remarks by brother Harvey, of London, on the difference between the man-child and the woman-child of this ordinance--The male-child type of Christ with his 33 years of natural life; the woman-child of his bride, who had personal sins to be atoned for--The number of days, 66, with an added six to represent the false or pretended Papal Bride--The moral and prophetic teaching of the type.

XXVII.--DISEASE

Disease and its treatment, evidently with a typical significance--Diseases of dis-organization--Leprosy and issue--Healthy mortals and unhealthy mortals--Human frailty and human wickedness--Curable and incurable leprosy--The spiritual meaning--Forgiveness of sin but only when not persisted in --The ceremony of the reception of the cured leper--The sacrificial lamb and the two birds--The allegory of the two birds, one killed and the other liberated--Orthodox misinterpretation inseparable from a false view of human nature --The key to this parable in the apostolic doctrine of the death of Christ-- Christ the two clean birds in death and resurrection--The cedar wood, hyssop, and other adjuncts--The work of Christ through the apostles--The law as to issue--Its recognition as defiling--The spiritual import--The periodical infirmity of woman as the subject of sacrificial purification--The typical intimations --an ordinance that does for woman what circumcision does for man--Both the helpless subjects of vanity, with hope.

XXVIII.--DEATH

Special reprobation of death as a cause of defilement by contact--The cleansing--The water of separation--The ashes of a slain heifer--Why such stringent measures ? --A deep subject---The origin of death in relation to man--Death in the animal world--Attested revelation--Adjustment of revealed truth to natural fact--Human mortality the result of sin--The awful thing meant by sin--Life: what is it ?--An insoluble problem--Revelation--God the fountain of life--Death the negation of His own work and the penalty of treason--Death destroyed by death in Christ--Some admirers of Christ horror-struck without a reason--The Papal view and its mischievous results--A wrong idea of God's objects--Subject difficult but beautiful and essential--John's emphasis on the subject of Christ having come in the flesh--An immaculate Christ as unfit for the object of sacrifice as a seeming Christ---Approach unacceptable without a true discernment of the principles on which God is willing to receive erring man to friendship--The red heifer--the colour--the condition--the killing--the priestly presentation--the sprinkling of the blood seven times--the burning--the left ashes--the cleanness of the man gathering them--All types realized in the work of Christ--Christ's forbidding Mary to touch him after his resurrection--Object of the various sacrificial ordinances--A solemn and imperative lesson--The holiness of God--An unbelieving and disobedient world.

XXIX.--MEATS

Beasts dying of themselves unfit for food--The reason not hygienic but spiritual --The flesh of particular creatures unclean--The principle of refusal--List of unfit animals--The classification based on spiritual significance--The principle allegorically involved--Peter and the vision of the knit sheet--The distinction of the meats done away--Still natural distinctions remain--Things good, things evil--Licence and fastidiousness alike to be avoided--The cud-chewing and hoof-parting animals---The sort of men that answer to the type--Spiritual food and spiritual life--Ruminating animals--The truth a thing for constant use--The typical eating of clean animals only--The avoidance of ungodly men--Dividing the hoof--surefootedness--Some all theory, and no action--The pig among the Jews--Pork and anti-pork controversy among the Gentiles--Singular state of things in view of the sow being a creature that symbolizes executive efficiency but indifference to the will of God--The moral combination most odious to God--The hygienic aspect of the question the least important--The law against unclean animals done away, but the thing signified remaining for ever--The classification of fowls and fishes on a different principle but meaning the same.

XXX.--NAZARITESHIP

A man at liberty to dedicate himself to God--The Nazarite not to drink wine--The reason--Interference with the natural equilibrium of the mind--The typical significance--Spiritual inabriation--Acceptable Nazariteship founded on cairn reason leading to strong love--The true Nazarites not shouting or theatrical religionists--Forbidden to cut the hair -The meaning--To come at no dead body--Domestic inconveniences--Jesus, the great Nazarite, made light of natural ties--The relationships of those who are sanctified by the truth--The Nazarite defiled by the sudden death of another near by--Important things suggested--The remedy for lost days--Confession, forgiveness, and reformation--The Nazarite's separation a parable of probation--The prominence of favour in the process of salvation--The saints saved as forgiven men--The typical counterpart of the sacrifices to be offered by the Nazarite at the end of the days of separation.

XXXI.--GIFTS TO GOD

Gratitude yearning for utterance--Suitable provision in the law--Dedicating property to God--Redemptions on payment of money on a scale of values--Personal consecrations--Devoted things unredeemable---Samuel--Jephthah's daughter--The typical distinction between sanctification and devotedness--This mortal and the immortal beyond--God only fitly served in the latter--The apparent inference from special consecrations that Israel were at liberty to live secular lives--A mistake--Only special holiness in the midst of a holy people---A type of what is coming--Provision for sanitation--Far better than modern sewage schemes--A clean, holy, happy earth coming--The antitype--The incorruptible camp of the saints--A perfect nature--perfect digestion--No residue---A pleasing prospect--Food not necessary to life in the future state, but assimilable to the spirit substance of the new body and a source of pleasure and refreshment --Wizards--The reason of their not being tolerated--Necromancers, witches, diviners, familiar spirits and all pretenders, and robbers of the glory of God.

XXXII.--MINOR THINGS

The non-muzzling of oxen in treading out the corn--A typical significance encouraging to workers--Unequal yoking of ox and ass--A lesson on the limits of practical co-operation--Neck not to be put in the same yoke with the unbelieving--The first numbering of Israel in the wilderness--Names of the enumeraters--Their meanings--A concealed prophecy in a dry list---The numbering a preparation for inheritance--A pattern as to days to come--The life of the redeemed not a social chaos--Exact in number and definite in station--The second numbering--The number about the same after forty years--Its probable significance in the second and .final adjustment of human affairs at the close of the thousand years--Exclusion of the tribe of Levi from the census--Given to God--Counterpart in the saints given to Christ---The Bride in the endless age--Captains, guides, and officers for ever--The immortal population in the perfect age an organized and well-ordered society--The honour of being called to the millennial kingdom greater than the millennial invitation to life eternal--The saved state a state of endlessly-varied and joyful activity.

XXXIII.--FINISHINGS

Extraneous but related matters--The present of wagons and oxen by the twelve princes--The divine acceptance of the present--The lesson of the incident---Unprescribed co-operation acceptable if in harmony with the principles of divine work--Another instance in Jethro's recommendation of helpers to Moses--Modern applications--Shadowing of the work of Christ in the age to come--The twelve apostles on twelve thrones--Reigning and co-operating--Yet individuality of thought and volition--The offering of the princes besides the present of the wagons and the oxen--Twelve similar offerings on twelve successive days--Why ?--A probable explanation--The nature of the offering and its typical significances, pointing forward to the perfect service of God--Orders to march--Order of procession--beautiful order--No hitch--A foreshadowing of the perfect order that will prevail in the age of glory--The end of these commentaries --The law, though ended in Christ, to be brought into force again in Israel's midst at their restoration--The testimony that it will be so--General prophetic allusions to the same effect--In the day of Christ, the Law of Hoses the understood typical memorial of the work accomplished in him--The last injunction of the Old Testament, to remember the Law of Moses--The hostile attitude of the nineteenth century--In the twentieth century, the law enthroned in Zion.

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