Fredericktown, PA

Crumrine - East Bethlehem Twp.


East Bethlehem Twp. (pp. 764-774)

History of Washington County, Pennsylvania*

Of the thirteen original townships into which Washington County was divided immediately after its erection in 1781, the second on the list was the township of Bethlehem, which embraced the present territory of East and West Bethlehem and a part of that of East Pike Run township. The old township of Bethlehem continued, with its original boundaries, for nine years from the time of its erection.

In 1788 a petition, dated August 29th of that year, and numerously signed by the inhabitants of Bethlehem and Fallowfield, was presented to the court praying that a new township be formed from parts of the two townships named. The court took no immediate action on the petition, and it was finally rejected.

At the September term of the court in 1788 there was presented " A Petition of a number of the Inhabitants of Bethlehem township, in the County of Washington." praying the court to "Cause our Township to be Divided Centerably and laid out in two distinct townships, which we would recommend as follows (to wit): Beginning at Petter Drake's, and thence a straight line to Wise's Mill, which has been ever accounted Centerable."

At the same term of court another and more numerously signed petition was presented of inhabitants of Bethlehem township, praying the court "to lay us off into two Disinct Townships, as nigh of an equal size as possible," and recommending a division line, "Beginning at the mouth of Daniels' Run, thence with a straight course to Adam Weaver's, which has always been allowed to be the Central house, thence with a straight course to Thomas Hill's, tavern-keeper."

Both petitions had the same object, the division of Bethlehem into two townships, and differed only as to the division line asked for. But the first-mentioned petition secured the favorable action of the court; the division was ordered in accordance with the line indicated in it, and on the 18th of January, 1790, the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania confirmed the decree of the court, erecting from the territory of old Bethlehem township two townships, "the easterly part to be called East Bethlehem." It appears that for more than a half-century there-after the status of the townships was satisfactory to the inhabitants; but at the November term of the Court of Quarter Sessions in 1842 a petition was presented "of sundry Inhabitants of East Bethlehem" for a new township to be formed from off the southern side of said township to be called" Plum Run," and to be bounded by a line "commencing near the mouth of Fish Pot Run, to intersect the West Pike Run township line near the Toll-Gate on the National road, east of Bealsville." On this petition the commissioners reported adversely May 27, 1843, and their report was confirmed by the court. In the same year the boundary line between East Bethlehem and East Pike Run was changed by an order of court, giving to the last-named township a small part of the territory of East Bethlehem. Again, in August, 1861, the line between East and West Bethlehem was slightly changed, leaving East Bethlehem with its present area and boundary lines. The township's boundaries are as follows: On the north, against East Pike Run and West Pike Run townships; on the east and south-east by the Monongahela River, separating it from Fayette County; on the south by the Monongahela and by Ten-Mile Creek (which last-named stream separates it from Greene County) ; and on the west by the township of West Bethlehem. All the streams of the township of any importance are mentioned in the preceding description of its boundaries.

Early Settlements.-The first white settlers within the territory of Washington County were Everhart Hupp, George Bumgarner, and Abraham Teagarden,. and all these located in the vicinity of the mouth of Ten-Mile Creek. Everhart Hupp and George Bum garner came together in the year 1766 from [Culpeper]Culpepor County, Va., and each made a settlement, as stated, in the southern part of the present township of East Bethlehem. Hupp's land was about two miles from the mouth of Ten-Mile Creek, on the north side. He took up several large tracts,---one known as "Hupp's Regard," containing three hundred and eighty-seven acres, which was granted him June 3, 1769, on warrant No.3318, and surveyed April 7, 1784; another tract, called "Hupp's Bottom," having two hundred and ninety-five acres, was given him on a Virginia certificate, and described "as including his actual settlement made in the year 1769." Everhart Hupp's wife was Margaret Hupp, and their children were George, Philip, Michael, Frank, Rezin, John, Henry, David, and Margaret. The sons Philip and Michael were in the war of 1812, being members of the company of Adam Wise, which went out from Fredericktown the latter part of that year. Philip Hupp afterwards married Phebe Johnson, and emigrated to the West. Rezin married Mahala Harris, and lived on Fish Creek. John's wife was Hannah Homer, and their home was near Clarksville. David followed the trade of stone-mason for several years. Both he and his brother Henry died of fever. The sons Michael and Frank married, and lived in Washington County. George Hupp was the oldest son and child of Everhart Hupp. He died in 1854, leaving a family of seven children, six daughters and one son. The son, George Hupp, Jr., now lives on a part of the original tract. Hiram Homer also owns a portion of the early homestead. The land of Everhart Hupp was near the present village of Millsborough, and he lived upon it until his death, which occurred in 1824. Some of the stones which formed the chimney of his early cabin home are yet to be seen upon the part of the farm now in the possession of Mr. Homer.

George Bumgarner, who came to this section with Mr. Hupp, located upon land adjoining that of his fellow-pioneer. He had but one child, his son Jesse, who was born in what is now Washington County, June 6, 1768. Jesse Bumgarner married Elizabeth Dolby, and at his father's death inherited all his estate. His children were Joseph, Jesse, Abraham, George, Elizabeth, Rachel, Delilah, Susan, and Hannah Bumgarner. Very many of the descendants of George Bumgarner still reside in this county. Mrs. Elizabeth Phillips is a grandchild, and Jesse Phillips and Jesse Bumgarner are great-grandsons. Mrs. O'Brian, Mrs. Dolby, and Mrs. Coon, who all live in or near the village of Millsborough, and Rev. Jacob B. McCormick, of Grafton, W. Va., are lineal descendants of the Bumgarner family.

Abraham Teagarden, whose advent into this section was contemporary with that of Hupp and Bumgarner, also took up large tracts of land that now lie within the boundaries of East Bethlehem township between the villages of Millsboro' and Clarksville. He was the father of William Teagarden, and no doubt George Teagarden was also his son. George Teagarden's name appears as grantee in a deed from Richard Ashcraft, dated April 20, 1769, conveying all Ashcraft's right and title to "a pearsell or peace of Land lying and being on the westward of Monongahela River, bounded on the North by --------- Creek, . . ." and also transferring the order of survey for the same land. It is without doubt the oldest deed of lands lying within the present boundaries of Washington County.

In the year 1770 three brothers named Oliver, James, and Josiah Crawford settled in Fayette County, Pa., and each opened a ferry across the Monongahela River. James Crawford located at the mouth of Fish Pot Run, on the Fayette County side of the river, but he owned the land on the Washington County side, to which his ferry ran, and he also lived on this side a part of the time. He had three daughters and four sons. The daughter Margaret married Zephaniah Beal; Ruth married William Campbell, and resided near Beallsville, in West Pike Run township, and Mary, who became the wife of William Hargrove, also lived near that town. The Hargrove and Beall families both lived and died in this county, but Mr. Campbell, who was a speculator, sold his property here and removed to Ohio. The sons of James Crawford were Ephraim, John, William, and Joseph, all of whom lived upon adjoining farms in Luzerne township, Fayette Co. At the death of James Crawford the ferry property on the Fayette County side of the river was inherited by his son John, and the salt-works on the Washington County side came into possession of the son Joseph. Of the property of Josiah Crawford, one of the early settlers, the ferry-site is owned by his nephew, Josiah Crawford, Jr., and the land in Washington County is owned by the heirs of Richard Thistlewait.

Thomas Hawkins was an Englishman by birth, who emigrated from his native land to America at a very early date. His first settlement was made in the State of Maryland, but he soon removed from there to a point near Beallsville, locating upon the property now occupied by Mrs. Sarah Hawkins. Mr. Hawkins married a daughter of James Crawford, who owned and operated the ferry at the mouth of Fish Pot Run. They had a family of eight children. Absalom Hawkins was the oldest son. He owned a number of slaves, and from 1803 to 1820, or later, kept a tavern upon the property now owned by Edward Taylor. He owned the Stephen Hill and the Gen. Crooks farms, and also owned six or seven hundred acres of land in West Bethlehem township, on the National road between Hillsborough and Beallsville. The road runs through the farm he then possessed. Absalom Hawkins died on the old Pusey farm, in this township.

Richard Hawkins, the second son of Thomas Hawkins, settled on that part of his father's tract that is now in the possession of Col. Alexander Hawkins. In 1813 he purchased four hundred and fifteen acres of land of Thomas Hill, which was located in Greene County, upon which he lived the remainder of his days. That property is now owned by his sons, William and John Hawkins. Another of his sons, James C. Hawkins, has a farm of three hundred and forty-five acres, called "Sycamore Grove." It is situated in East Bethlehem township, on Ten-Mile Creek, about two and one-half miles from the river, and was first owned by William Montgomery, who warranted it. Mr. Montgomery became involved and sold the place to Evan McCullough, of Greene County, of whom Mr. Hawkins obtained it, making the purchase in the year 1833. There was a mill built upon the run, which was first operated by Mr. Montgomery, and also by each successive owner of the property, Mr. Hawkins continuing it until 1875. In 1843, at the time he bought it, he put in three carding-machines, a picker, and a fulling-mill, and these controlled a large custom for twelve miles in each direction. In 1870 the carding- and fulling-mill was discontinued, the machinery being sold to Morgan Wise, and taken by him to Waynesburg, to use in the establishment known as the Hook Mill. A saw-mill has been put in operation where the fulling-mill was run, a new dam having been built to supply the water-power. Of the three dams that have been built at this place, two have been the work of Mr. Hawkins. Besides the other investments and business interests of the Hawkins family, they have nearly all been extensively engaged in wool-growing and sheep-raising.

William Hawkins was the third son of Thomas Hawkins, the early settler. He lived and died upon a farm adjoining that of his father, and Mr. Patterson, a grandson of his, now owns and occupies the property. Thomas Hawkins, Jr., was the youngest son of Thomas Hawkins, Sr. He owned and lived upon a part of the homestead for a while, but in 1850 removed to Stark County, Ohio, where he resided the rest of his life.

John Welch came into possession of his land in this township through purchase from Christian Hames, who took it up on a Virginia certificate, and settled on it in 1774. It was assigned to John Welch, and was surveyed to him March 29, 1785. It was given the title of "Enniskillen," and was located next the lands of Zephaniah Beall, James McMullen, and Isaac Peyton. At the death of John Welch this property was inherited by his son, J. B. Welch, who was born on the place. He was a member of the Pennsylvania Legislature from this district for a few years. At his death he left a widow and four daughters, who still reside on the homestead.

John and Jacob Hormel were among the earliest settlers of East Bethlehem township. John warranted a tract of land Feb.16, 1786, which contained three hundred and ninety-three acres, and was surveyed June 1, 1786, and given the name of "Garland." Jacob Hormel resided upon the tract-" Garland" until his death in 1821, and left it to his sons, William and John Hormel, Jr. William Hormel died in 1827, and John Hormel then purchased his share and still owns the whole property. Thus it has been in the possession of the Hormel family nearly one hundred years. John Hormel, Jr., was born in 1801, and is now past eighty years of age. Two younger members of the Hormel family, Robert and Nathan, served in the war of the Rebellion. Both enlisted Sep 5, 1861, in Company H, Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry, Robert serving until September; 1865, and Nathan receiving his discharge April 30, 1862.

Joseph Dorsey came from Ellicott's Mills, Md., to this section, and took up fifteen hundred acres of land, lying partly in East Bethlehem and partly in East Pike township. The portion of his land called the homestead was a body of one thousand acres situated in this township, about two and one-half miles up the river from West Brownsville. Joseph Dorsey built a log cabin, in which himself and family lived a few years, but between the years 1790 and 1800 he built the stone house that at present stands upon the farm. Mr. Dorsey had several sons and daughters. One daughter was Mrs. Dr. Wilson, of Steubenville; Nancy became Mrs. Debois, and removed to Ohio with her husband; Clarissa and Betsey both went to Ohio and died there; and Matilda went to reside in Kentucky. Edward Dorsey died in Ohio, and John died in the city of Cincinnati while traveling. James Dorsey was born in 1790, and was the youngest of the family. He remained in this township, and his share of the property was five hundred acres of the homestead tract. He died in 1852, and left his estate to his two sons, George and James V. Dorsey. George had three hundred and eighteen acres, and the portion which James V. Dorsey possesses includes the old stone house in which they lived so many years.

Benjamin Kenney settled in East Bethlehem township in the year 1800, upon a portion of the land called the "Acklin Patent." Mr. Kenney had two sons, James and Wesley Kenney, both of whom were eminent Methodist clergymen. Rev. Wesley Kenney died in or near Philadelphia, where he was in charge of a church. Rev. James Kenney is still living. He is not only a minister, but also an excellent farmer. He has reared a large family; has a son in California, two in Illinois, and one living at home with him. He has also two daughters who live in Illinois, and four who still remain at home. Solomon Smith was a mere boy when his father came from the East into this part of Pennsylvania, which was then termed "emigrating West." They stopped at Redstone Old Fort for several years, and removed to Washington County in 1786. Solomon Smith's sons were Reuben, Samuel, and John Smith, and Mrs. Chatham Jennings is his daughter. John Smith died in Ohio, whither he had removed. Reuben and Samuel lived and died in Washington County, and their children are now residents of East Bethlehem township.

The Lintons (Joshua and his son Mahlon) came from Bucks County, Pa., to this township, and about the year 1800 the father purchased the land upon which Barney McNamee had settled. Joshua Linton had three sons, ---Mahlon, Benjamin, and Joshua, Jr. Benjamin never married; Mahlon married Ann Hillis, and their children were Joseph, Isaiah, Mary Ann, and Margaret Linton. Mary Ann married Jesse Richards and lives in Ohio; Margaret, who married Thomas Packard, resides in Iowa. Joshua, Jr., also married. His son Nathan lives in Iowa, and Henry Linton is a citizen of East Bethlehem township.

John Bower, the ancestor of the families of that name, was son of Andrew Bower, of York County, Pa., who was a son of Michael Bower, a German immigrant He was born April 23, 1772, and on July 15, 1794, married Elizabeth, daughter of Geo. Rex Worthy, who moved westward in 1795 and settled near Jefferson, Greene Co. John Bower, with his wife, followed in March and April, 1796, and settled at Fredericktown, then lately laid out, on the Monongahela River. On Aug. 18, 1801, he received a deed from David Blair for a tract of fifty-two and one-half acres, patented to Blair May 13, 1789, and called "Apple Bottom." This tract formed part of the homestead of Mr. Bower, and upon it he erected the large stone residence at the lower end of Main Street, in Fredericktown, in which he lived till his death, July 29, 1836. His widow survived him, and died Sept. 30, 1852.

Mr. Bower was commissioned a justice of the peace under the constitution of 1790 on the 10th of December, 1813, which office he held until at or near his death. He was the father of thirteen children: George, Philip, Jona Rex Hannah, Andrew (who, as his father before him, was a man of more than ordinary intelligence, and after his father's death, in 1836, was elected to succeed him as a justice of the peace, holding that office till the time of his own death), Hiram Rex, Charles Worthy, John Kepner, Margaret, Elizabeth, Benjamin F. (who, following his father and brother, has been a justice of the peace fur his township one or more times, and resides at Fredericktown), and Mary, the thirteenth child, born Jan. 3, 1821, having been bitten by a dog in her infancy, was affected all her life, and died single and an invalid about 1845.

George Crumrine came from Maryland in 1801. He was the son of Abraham Krumrein, who was the son of George Krumrein who died in Maryland in 1779. The latter was a son of George Lenhart Krumrein, who landed at Philadelphia from the Palatinate in 1749. Three sons of Abraham came over the mountains about the same time; George, above named, settled East Bethlehem township; John West Bethlehem township, on Daniels Run, where he lived and died at an advanced age, leaving sixteen children; Peter remained with George for a short time, when he married a daughter of ----- Wise and removed to Knox County, Ohio.

George Crumrine, who came to this township, purchased of Adam Hartman March 14, 1801, for eight hundred dollars, a tract called "Darby," Containing one hundred and twenty-six acres. He also purchase seventy-three and three-quarter acres adjoining the foregoing on Jan. 2, 1810, for six hundred dollars ( part of the tract called "Greenland"), from Michael Rupp, who had purchased the land from Jacob Crotinger Oct. 1, 1806. These two tracts made a farm two hundred acres, on which he lived until his death. Sept.27, 1832, at the age of fifty-six years. His wife was Elizabeth Garrett, sister of Nicholas and Henry Garret, who came from the same section of Maryland at about the same time. He was overseer of the poor of the township for many years. His children were George, Jacob, Peter, Daniel, John, William, and Abraham, and one daughter, Margaret. Of these, all remained in the county except Abraham, who emigrated to Illinois.

George settled about two and a half miles north east of Millsboro', on the farm now occupied by his son Demas. Jacob was a miller, and owned the mill erected by his father on Plum Run, now owned by his son George. Peter was a cooper when in active life. He remained a bachelor, and died in February 1882, at an advanced age, occupying a property immediately adjoining the homestead. Daniel was awarded by partition proceedings to June Orphans Court, 1833, the homestead farm (excepting the mill seat), containing one hundred and ninety-three acres He was born April 25, 1805. By trade he was a mill wright, and in 1831, in partnership with Ephraim L. Blaine (the father of James G. Blame) erected the saw-mill now occupied by John S. Pringle, in West Brownsville. He married Margaret, daughter of John Bower, Esq., of Fredericktown, Dec.26, 1830. His wife died October, 1849. Their children are all living (except two who died in infancy), viz.: Boyd Crumrine, of Washington; Bishop Crumrine, attorney-at-law at Topeka, Kan.; Lesage and Alonzo are farmers, and occupy the homestead with their father who is still living. Elizabeth, a daughter, is at home with her father unmarried.

John, son of George Crumrine, was a cooper by trade, and lived the greater part of his life at Fredericktown, and died in 1880. William was also a cooper by trade, but has long been a farmer, and resides in West Pike Run. Margaret, the only daughter of George, remained unmarried, and is still living on the property owned by her brother Peter, having lived with him for many years.

The name of James Regester appears among the names of the pioneers of East Bethlehem township. He lived and died upon his farm here, and many of his descendants, all good citizens, still reside here. A grandson, James Regester, Jr., owns and lives upon the old homestead.

Zephaniah Beall was one of the earliest settlers of East Bethlehem township, one of its most energetic and influential residents of the pioneer days, and a remarkable man in many respects. He was twice married, the first wife being a daughter of James Crawford, of Fayette County, and was the father of the twenty-four children, twelve being the result of each a marriage. Mr. Beall was the founder of Beallsville, and in the history of that town will be found more particulars of his life.

The Bane and Morgan families came from Jefferson and Berkeley Counties in Virginia, and located in East Bethlehem township, upon land they purchased of Joseph Avescat. Henry and William Bane, descendants of the early settlers, still own and occupy the Bane portion of the tract. A few representatives of the Morgan family still live in this section, owning property along the Monongahela River. Joseph Avescat, after selling his land, removed to Fredericktown, where he kept a public-house. The only descendant of his now residing in this vicinity is Joseph Avescat, Jr., of Rice's Landing.

Thomas Bishop raised a family in East Bethlehem township, of which Thornton and Hiram Bishop are lineal descendants. The farm of Nehemiah Jester is a part of the old Bishop homestead.

Joseph Alexander at one time owned a tract of land in East Bethlehem township. He married Jeanette Montgomery, by whom he had several children. Andrew Alexander was the oldest, and his wife was Harriet Lawrence. Henry Alexander married Mary Lawrence, and his widow still resides in Millsborough. Sarah Alexander became the wife of Harry Newkirk. Harriet Alexander became the wife of Solomon Wise, who, after her death, married another daughter of Joseph Alexander.

The property upon which Eli Farquhar now lives was the tract upon which his grandfather, Thomas Farquhar, settled at an early day. Thomas Farquhar, Jr., is another grandson of this early settler, and his descendants have become very numerous.

Thomas Hughes located in this vicinity at a very early day, and remained in this township until he had passed the age of eighty years, when he removed to the State of Ohio, dying there when nearly a hundred years old.

The Enochs family was largely represented in East Bethlehem township, and its members were interested in the manufacturing industries. The tract of three hundred acres, known as "Hupp's Bottom," was transferred to David Enochs, to whom the warrant for it was issued Nov.26, 1787. David Enochs also owned other lands in this township. On April 5, 1797, he deeded to his son, David Enochs, Jr., the two hundred and twelve acres which belonged to the tract "Righteous," warranted by James Foster, Sept. 4, 1786. It was situated on the waters of Ten-Mile Creek, was sold to David Enochs, March 27, 1787, and patented to him March 3, 1789. The land of Isaac Enochs was the tract "Essen," containing fifty-five acres, adjoining the land of William and Henry Enochs, John Hull, and Samuel Bell. William Enochs had thirty-three acres, which were warranted and surveyed to him in 1793, and next the lands of George Teagarden, Everhart Hupp, and Isabella Perry, and was given the name of " Hazard." Henry Enochs' land, which was located on the north bank of Ten-Mile Creek, was obtained by him upon a Virginia certificate. and surveyed May 13, 1786. Henry Enochs had two sons, Isaac and William Enochs, but whether they were the persons of those names already mentioned is not definitely known.

Fredericktown, the oldest village in the township of East Bethlehem, is located on the west bank of the Monongahela River, one mile northeast of Millsborough, and eight miles southwest of West Brownsville. The village was patented and laid out by Frederick Wise, was built upon land owned by him, and was named for him as its founder. The survey and plot were made by Isaac Jenkinson, and dated March 8, 1790. Jenkinson put up a house on the lot he had purchased directly after the town was laid out.

In the midst of the work Frederick Wise died, but instead of the project being abandoned all his plans and ideas were carried out by his widow, Catharine Wise, and the other administrators of the estate, Isaac Jenkinson and Peter Nossinger. In the charter of the town, or article of agreement made by Wise with purchasers of lots, it was specified that:

"The said Frederick Wise for himself, his heirs, executors administrators, and assigns, doth hereby agree that all streets, alleys, and public round, described in said plann, be given, clear of all charge and expense, for public uses; also all springs of water on the premises of said Wise, and all stone-quarries on his premises as long as the land is in his possession, but not otherwise, and all timber (except boat and shingle timber) given free for the use and benefit of Improving in said town for the space of one year & six months, to commence from the date hereof, to be cut on the said Wise's land whilst in his possession, but not otherwise."

In the contracts with purchasers, the latter were required to pay half a dollar per annum quit-rent on each lot, and "with all convenient speed to erect thereon a stone, brick, frame, or hewed logg house at least twenty feet square (or equal thereto) with shingled roof, stone or brick chimney, and enclose the said lot or lotts within post and rail fence or good pailing within four years from the purchase," on penalty of forfeiture of lots; "and no Distillery for the destruction of grain or fruit shall be at any time erected on the premises, either by or under the said Frederick Wise or any purchaser, in pursuance of his, her, or their purchase." The article was signed by Frederick Wise and the following-named purchasers, viz.: Isaac Jenkinson, John Baker, Francis Townsend, Joseph Green, Andrew Nossinger, John Richardson, Solomon Shepherd, John Shepherd, Solomon Shepherd, Jr., Peter Nossinger, and Edward Moran, "for himself and Blain Moran, two Lotts."

The house which Frederick Wise and his family occupied when they lived upon their farm was a simple log cabin, which stood on the lot where H. H. Weaver now has a store. The growth of the town has been slow, but even at an early date quite a show of business was made by the different trades pursued at this point. In the issue of the Western Telegraphe, Sept.22, 1795, appeared the following advertisement of a manufacturing establishment in Fredericktown:

The Subscriber, Living in Fredericktown on the Monongahela River, Washington County, takes this method to inform the public in general that he continues carrying on the SCREW MAKING Business in it various branches, where he will make and repair screws for raising mill stones, packing flour, tobacco, for timber-wheels and fullers and printers presses. He also makes fullers shears, oil mill rollers, millers brands, & c., and as he has the advantage of his works going by water, flatters himself, that from the expedition and accuracy, not only in the above line of business but in all kinds of mill and other heavy work, he will be enabled to give general satisfaction, both to Emigrants and the Inhabitants of the Western Country, 9th month, 10th day, 1795, David Townsend."

David Blair, a gunsmith, had a shop near where the mill now stands. To supply his forge he brought coal in sacks on horseback from Fishpot Run, never imagining that the hills adjacent to the town were full of it. This fact was first discovered by John Bower while he was digging a mill-race; but Nathan Pusey was the first who opened a coal bank in this vicinity.

On Dec. 7,1795, Isaac Jenkinson announced in the newspapers "that he has lately received from Philadelphia a fresh assortment of dry goods, groceries, iron mongery, and a valuable collection of books." Nov. 28, 1796, Archibald Hood advertised "that he intends commencing the tannery business in Fredericktown." The firm of Samms & Dilhorn was in business in Fredericktown prior to the year 1797, but a dissolution of the partnership took place and the business was continued in the name of Nathaniel Samms. As early as March 7, 1796, the village of Fredericktown had started a library, with David Townsend as treasurer of the society, and Isaac Jenkinson acting as secretary.

Fredericktown now contains twenty-three dwelling houses, two stores having stocks of general merchandise, two shoe-stores, one blacksmith-shop, a hotel, the post-office, and a handsome brick school-house. The steam-mill built in 1826 by Isaac Thompson is now in the hands of John Bower, Esq. In April, 1881, a factory was started in Fredericktown by Leonard Leitz, in which are manufactured handles and other articles of that class. The distillery at this point, which was formerly under the control of a man named Busson, has fallen into disuse.

The manufacture of pottery has been more or less part of the business of Fredericktown in years past. The first attempt was by John Bower, who made red ware. He was succeeded by Jacob Wise, John Row followed next, and the last to engage in this branch as Eli Gapen. Stoneware was made here as early as 1843 by Polk Donahoo. Both of these specialties have been abandoned.

Powelltown is situated on Two-Mile Run, a little distance from the Westland meeting-house. It took its name from that of James Powell, upon whose land it was built. Powelltown formerly contained ten dwelling-houses. Mr. Powell had a country store at this point. There was a blacksmith-shop here, and several other industries were carried on. Mr. Powell was a justice of the peace at that time. The sons of Mr. Powell were two,-Jeptha and Josiah. Jeptha lived single for many years, and then married a Miss Mitchell. They had no children. Josiah Powell married, and lived on the National road. He sold his farm (which is now owned by Mrs. Deems), and removed to the West. Since the beginning of Centreville, Powelltown has been on the decline. There are but two families now living there, -one of these being the family of Mr. Peter Cleaver, who is an octogenarian.

Centreville is located on the line separating the townships of East Bethlehem and West Pike Run, lying partly in each, and equidistant from Washington and Uniontown. The village was laid out upon the land of John Cleaver; who built the first house in it. The recorded plat of the place shows it to have been laid out in 1821. It contains fifty-three building lots and a brick-yard lot. Prior to this, however, Robert Vale had purchased some land of Mr. Cleaver, and divided it into building lots. Lot No.17, on the corner of Main Street and Pine Alley, upon which is located the hotel of Joseph B. Jeffreys, is the first lot that appears as having been sold, and is one of those purchased by Robert Vale, April 7, 1819. Centreville has a number of fine buildings, the Methodist Episcopal Church being the most conspicuous. There are thirty-eight dwelling-houses, and the business part of the village is well built up. The hotel is at present under the management of Joseph B. Jeffreys. John R. Van Gilder, Lewis N. Cleaver, John Dabinett, Emmer Griffith, and Abraham Deems are engaged in the dry-goods and grocery trade, and Lewis N. Cleaver deals in drugs and hardware. William Wolf, Sr., is proprietor of the wagon shop; James Floyd has a boot and shoe store; William Wolf, Jr., has a blacksmith shop, and Jonathan K. Teale carries on the cabinet-making business. The physicians residing and practicing in Centreville are Dr. William Colton and Dr. I. C. Farquhar. Rev. Charles McCaslin is the resident pastor in charge of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

Cedar Lodge, No.633, I.0.0. F., was instituted May 20, 1868. The charter was granted at that time, and the charter members were Barnet Johnson, Thomas B. Theakston, Samuel M. Geho, Joshua N. Grimes, Thomas West, Joseph Farquhar, Joseph S. Gray, Ross McMillen, John R. Dunlap, Joseph Wilkes, Alexander McKee, S. B. Paxton, Joshua B. Deems. The first officers of this lodge were W. N. Harkins, N. G.; E. S. Geho, V. G.; L. M. Cleaver, Sec.; E. H. Griffith, Asst. Sec.; William Fisher, Treas. The members of Cedar Lodge in 1881 numbered forty.

Centreville Encampment, No.224, was instituted ten years ago, and the charter was granted Feb.17, 1882. The lodge has a membership of fifteen persons. The following are the present officers: Ahira Jones, H. P.; E. H. Griffith, C. P.; Thomas West, S. W.; Eli Farquhar, J.W.; T. B. Theakston, Scribe; Lewis M. Cleaver, Treas.

Bethesda Church.-The first society of the Methodist Episcopal Church at Centreville was organized in the year 1828. The following are the names of the pastors from the first to the present time: S. R. Brockman, William Tipton, John Spencer, David Cross, David Sharp, Abner Jackson, Jeremiah Knox, George McCaskey, John White, Richard Armstrong, ------ Stinchcomb, Josiah Adams, ----- Dorsey, John L. Irwin, James G. Sanson, Warner Long, J. D. Turner, George B. Hudson, John S. Wakefield, Matthias M. Eaton, John Brown, Josiah Mansell, T. C. McClure, D. B. Campbell, John Mclntire, J. L. Stiffey, J. H. Henry, Josiah Mansell, W. A. Stuart, and Charles McCaslin, the present pastor.

In 1834 a lot was purchased of Daniel Mcjunkin by Battey White, Samuel Dotson, John Stuthers, John Iliff, and Hugh Hetherington, trustees. This was in the village of Centreville. A church was erected on it, and was occupied until 1874.

In the year 1872 the handsome church edifice in Centreville was begun, but the building was not completed until 1874, and the dedication took place in September of that year. At the time of the dedication the membership was one hundred and nineteen persons. The society was divided into two classes, the first having sixty-four members under the leadership of L. F. Baker. Class No.2, with A. H. Deaves as leader, had fifty-five members. The present church edifice is located in the. town of Centreville, on the south side of the National road. The society is included in the Beallsville District, which is composed of four appointments, Bethesda or Centreville, Taylor's, Beallsville, and Fairview. The entire membership of these different societies is three hundred and thirty-seven. The land on which the Methodist Episcopal Church has been built was first donated by Dr. Cotton, but as he afterwards exchanged the site with Joseph Jones for some ground in another location, to the latter gentleman belongs the honor of having presented the ground upon which the edifice stands.

The Village of Millsborough is situated in the extreme southern part of East Bethlehem township, and was founded about the year 1817. The first house built in the place was erected by Robert White, and the second (a brick building on what is now Water Street) by Henry Wise, both of which were put up sixty-five years ago. Both White and Wise were inn-keepers. In the year 1840 the citizens of Millsborough applied to the Legislature to have their village created a borough, which was granted by an act approved June 12, 1840, which provided and declared

"that the town of Millsborough, in the county of Washington and territory included within the following boundaries, to wit: Commencing at low-water mark in the Monongahela River; thence south seventy-eight and a half degree west forty-two perches; thence south fourteen and three-fourth degree east five perches and two-elevenths; thence south seventy-three degrees west seventy one and seven-tenth perches; thence south eleven degrees west one hundred and thirty-nine perches; thence south twenty-one degrees east forty-three and five-eleventh perches to low-water mark in Ten-Mile Creek; thence following low-water mark in Ten-Mile Creek to the Monongahela River three hundred and fifty-one and two-eleventh perches unto the place of beginning, are hereby erected into a borough, which shall be called and styled the Borough of 'Millsborough.' "

The first borough election in Millsborough was held July 6, 1840, when the following-named officers were elected, viz.: Burgess, John H. Bowell; Council, Weaver Heaton, David Spindler, P. F. Vernon Paul Rankin.

The last officers of the borough of Millsborough (for the year 1878) were: Burgess, Thomas H. Carter; Council, Isaac Bell, Joseph Dunn, Jesse Virgin, George W. Homer.

The following-named persons were elected justices of the peace for Millsborough during its existence as a borough, viz.:

Remembrance Hughes, July 31, 1840. Wm. W. Hawthorn. May 5, 1863
Joshua M. Ammons, April 12,1850.
Wm. W. Hawthorn, April 13, 1841. Jacob Conn April 20, 1864.
Persifer F. Vernon, April 15, 1845. Wm. W. Hawthorn May 30,1868.
Thomas Dalby, April 11, 1848. Jacob conn, April 21, 1869.
William Bramley. April 10,1849. John H. Bowell, April 19, 1872
David Bumgarner, April 15, 1851. John H, Bowell, Jan. 31,1874.
Wm. W. Hawthorn April 13, 1853. Jacob Conn, May 24, 1874.
Isaac Sharp, April 11, 1854. Josh. M. Ammons, March 17,1875.
Wm. W. Hawthorn, May 18,1858. John H, Bowell, March 21,1877.

In 1847 an addition was made to Millsborough on the north side, the survey being made January 26th of that year by Samuel Linton for Jesse Bumgarner. In 1878 Millsborough ceased its existence as a borough and passed again into the township organization of East Bethlehem.

In the sixty or seventy years of the existence of Millsborough as a town, various industries have been carried on with greater or less success. One of the earliest was the old Bumgarner mill, built by Jesse Bumgarner, which is still standing, and is located on the river, opposite the mill or factory built by Henry Heaton, Jesse Bumgarner, and others, in Fayette County. At this point the river was dammed. The power to run the mills was obtained from a waterwheel, which was so constructed and placed as to have the water strike the paddles as it passed through a lock.

The Millsborough foundry, established many years ago by Baen, Eaton & Co., as situated on the bank of the river, on Water Street. To some of the company it was a financial success. In 1881 the buildings were burned, and have not yet been rebuilt.

The distillery of James Emery, situated on the Monongahela River, in Millsborough, was erected in 1867, at a cost of $2000. It has a capacity for manufacturing twenty bushels of grain into liquor daily. This distillery is next the old Franklin factory building, a stone structure three and one-half stories in height, which is used by Mr. Emery in connection with his distillery.

The Southwest Normal School was established in Millsborough by that pioneer educator, Thomas Horner, who is mentioned at length in the educational article of the general history of the county in this volume.

The Millsborough Fair Grounds are a portion of the land called Sandy Plains, located midway between Millsborough and Clarksville, and are owned by James Emery & Co. The grounds were purchased in 1873, and the first fair was held Nov. 4 and 5, 1874. Millsborough has now two hotels, two dry-goods stores, two shoe-stores, two gun-shops, a millinery-store, a cabinet-shop, a tannery, a foundry, and a distillery, beside the churches, schools, and other social institutions. The only secret organization is Invincible Lodge, No.741, I.0.0.F., which was organized Nov.15, 1870. The officers are James Adamson, N. G.; Harry H. Weaver, V. G.; William F. Orr, Sec.; William A. Hoge, Asst. Sec.; John S. Gibson, Treas.

Churches.-In the early days of Millsborough the believers in the different Methodist faiths joined in the erection of a public house of worship. The house, a log building, was built in 1830 and 1831, upon ground donated by Jesse Bumgarner for that purpose, and the Methodist Episcopal people were to have the preference of occupancy, the Methodist Protestant Society to come next in the order of privilege. The persons who organized and became members of the Methodist Episcopal Church were Jesse Bumgarner, Elizabeth Bumgarner, Israel Dolby, Polly Dolby, Martha, Susan, Rachel, and Elizabeth Phillips, Jemima Herbert, Susan Bumgarner, Hannah Dille, Mary and William Barker, Jacob Spindler and his wife, Elizabeth Spindler, Emily Schoolie, Salome O'Brian, and Sarah Totten. The following-named ministers have been in charge over this religious organization: Revs. S. Brocooner, Spencer, Lemon, Coil, Samuel Lock, L. P. Saddler, Garrett, Jordan, Reuter, Wakefield, and the present preacher, Rev. D. Gogley. There was a Sabbath-school in connection, which was first superintended by Samuel Pedan, of Washington, who married Miss Rachel Carroll, of Millsborough. His memory is honored by the grateful remembrance of all who knew and profited by his good works.

The Methodist Protestant Society was regularly organized in 1834 by Rev. Thomas Flower, the original members being, Rachel Emmons, Rachel Sharp, John Rigy, Caleb Harford Paul and Margaret

Rankin, William Rigy, and Nancy Rankin. A great many persons joined this church from time to time, until a large congregation was in regular attendance and the society was in a flourishing condition. After a few years the members to a great extent emigrated to the West and other parts, and the membership gradually diminished until finally the society was disbanded, the four remaining members going to the Mount Zion, the Old Side Methodists, and the Cumberland Presbyterian Churches. Among the ministers who presided over this charge were Revs. William Dunleavy, R. J. Simonton, Nelson Watson, and Mr. Browning. In 1855 the handsome brick edifice known as the "Methodist Church" was erected on the site of the log house built in 1830 and 1831. It is the property of the Methodist Episcopal Society, which has grown strong in numbers and influence in its existence of a full half-century.

The records of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church show that on June 17, 1838, a few people of that faith formed themselves into a society. They were George W. Bumgarner, Henry Alexander, Mary Alexander, Lebeus Clark, Mary Clark, Rebecca N. Eaton, Matilda Van Kirk, Nimrod Grabill, Zeniah Grabill, Mary Ann Johnson, Tirzah Bowers, Harriet Clark, Nancy Rush, Mary N. Beatty, Elizabeth Wilson, Matilda Jennings, Samuel Beatty, Caleb Harford, Jane Gibbons, Jane Harris, Eliza Gibbons, Jeremiah Evans, Jane Jennings, Catharine Bumgarner, Jane Wilson, Milton Michener, and Abraham Black.

In 1840 this congregation built a handsome and commodious brick church. which is located on the road from Millsborough to Fredericktown. In the same year it was dedicated, Rev. Mr. Bryan, their first clergyman, officiating. Among the ministers upon this charge succeeding Rev. Mr. Bryan have been Rev. John Gary, who remained until 1844 (except the year 1843, when Rev. I. Adams supplied the place) ; Rev. I. N. Gary held the place in 1847, 1848, 1849, and 1850; Rev. Williams was the minister in 1855; Rev. Jacob Mornyer in 1858; Rev. John S. Gibson in 1870; Rev. A. W. White preached for the society in 1877; he was followed by Rev. R. J. P. Lemon, and in 1881 Rev. I. N. Gary was the presiding minister.

Outside the towns and villages of East Bethlehem township are three other churches to be mentioned in this history. The Westland meeting-house, the place of worship of the Society of Friends, was built seven-eighths of a century ago. On April 12, 1792, James Townsend and his wife sold ten acres of the "Fecund Valley" tract to the trustees of this society upon which to build a meeting-house. This land is situated at the head-waters of Two-Mile Run, in East Bethlehem township, and was purchased for twenty pounds by Nathan Heald, James Crawford, Abraham Smith, John Townsend, John Heald, and Isaac Jenkinson. The deed given for the land described it as "containing ten acres, be the same more or less, it being a part of tract 'Fecund Valley, for 20; and whereas, the society of the people called Quakers, of Westland Meeting, did nominate and appoint the said Nathan Heald, James Crawford, Abraham Smith, John Townsend, John Heald, and Isaac Jenkinson trustees for the purpose of securing a certain lot of ground included in said survey for the purpose of a meeting-house, burying-ground, and other necessary purposes for the only particular use and behoof of said Society," etc.

Upon this land the Quakers built a stone church forty-eight by fifty-two feet in size and eleven feet high. It had twelve windows and four doors, with chimneys at the corners, which were evidently built with the church. The house is still standing, and appears to have been remodeled and enlarged at some time, but is now in a very dilapidated condition. The following, copied from the books of the society, gives the dates and reasons for discontinuing the meetings and selling their property, which they did some fifteen years ago:

Last meeting of the Westland Friends, held the twenty-first day of fourth month, A.D. 1864. Members transferred to Salem Monthly Meeting, Ohio (being the nearest meeting we have), namely: Samuel Endland and family, Elizabeth Taylor, Ellis Phillips, Mary Harry, Ellis Lilly, Susanna S. Cleaver; Homer C. Lilley, Hannah Ann Farquahar, Isaac Cleaver, John Cleaver, Ann Cleaver, Peter Cleaver, Jane Cleaver, Nathan Cleaver, Sarah L. Cleaver, Martha M. Cleaver, William McGuier, Rebecca McGuier, Lewis Harry, Sarah Harry, Josiah John, Joseph S. Crossdale, Morris Truman, Ann Crawford, Alan McGuier, Facy Endland, Ruth Jackman, Elisha Bennett. Thomas W. Lilly, [ ?]ittis Linton, Comely Harry, John Harry, Olive M. Linton,, Jesse Harry, Isaac A. Cleaver, Mary A. Phillips, Letitia Griffith,, Esther Pyle and children, Isaac McGirr, Joseph M. Pursey and family, Eliza Jane Griffith, Samuel Griffith, Amos G. Cleaver and family, Eli R. Griffith, Philena G. Barker, Oscar J. Griffith, John E. Cleaver, Benjamin Cleaver, Elizabeth Cleaver, Mary Eliza Cleaver, Ellis. N. Lilly, Phebe Ann Lilly. Mariah Jordan, Matilda Linton, Benjamin L. Linton, Caroline Maxwell, Mary Ann Taylor, David John, Asenath John, Taylor John, Emma John, Joseph John. Oliver R. Griffith. Milton Marsh, Eliza G. Marsh, Israel L. Griffith, Hannah G. Marsh,. Ruth Ann Phillips, Elizabeth Bennett, William Phillips. Ruth Swan, Solomon Phillips, Thomas Phillips, Elizabeth Phillips, James Phillips, Ellis Phillips, Martha Jane Phillips, Hiram Cleaver, Isaac N. Cleaver, Eli V. Cleaver, Seth B. Cleaver, Philena Cleaver, Jefferson Cleaver, Joseph Lewis, Mary S. Lewis, William [H.] Shriver, John F. Lewis, Rachel 0. Lewis, John F. Lewis, Mary L. Lewis, and Helen M. Lewis.

"The business requested to be attended to by the Quarterly Meeting having been transacted, finally concludes and is now laid down.

                                                        "Joseph Lewis, Clerk.

"Whereas, The Quakers of Westland Meeting aforesaid were a branch of the Redstone Quarterly Meeting, and having decreased in numbers by death and removals so much as to be unable to maintain a meeting, the Redstone Meeting aforesaid, in accordance with the discipline of the Society of Friends, took charge of the real estate, and appointed Amos Griffith and Lewis Campbell to sell the property."

They sold it April 16, 1866, to William Fisher, Amos G. Cleaver, and Joseph Farquhar for three hundred dollars.

The regular organization of a Baptist Church took place in East Bethlehem township in 1849. It was under the care of the Ten-Mile Baptist Association. The constituent members were William Wood, James C. Hawkins and wife, Mary A. Hawkins, Nathan Ullery and wife, Jacob Zollars and wife, Thomas Hawkins and wife, Susan Zollars, James Greenfield and wife, and George Zollers and wife. Rev. William Wolf was the first pastor, and he was succeeded by Revs. Samuel Kendall, Job Rowell, Charles Tilton, James Miller, and W. W. Hickman, the latter at present established over this charge. The society has a membership of one hundred and sixty. They still occupy the frame church which they built soon after their organization. It was built on land donated to the society by James C. Hawkins for that purpose.

In 1853 the Methodist Protestant people who belong to the Mount Zion society built a neat frame church, which is beautifully situated midway between Fredericktown and Beallsville. The land upon which the church was erected was purchased of Reuben Smith. The house was dedicated by Rev. George Brown. The members were Reuben Smith, Amos Bentley, Abraham Keys, John Baker, Nathaniel Smawley, John Register, John C. Smith, and their wives, and Mary, Rebecca, and Stephen Hill. Many ministers have presided over this society, -Rev. Mr. Laton, who died of cholera in Pittsburgh, Revs. Joel Woods, Jacob French, William Betts, Davis Jones, Mr. Simonton, Henry Lucas, Isaac Francis, Jesse Hall, Valentine Lucas, Milton Stillwell, Harry Stillwagon, Mr. Wallace, Mr. Goodridge, G. I. Crowder, Henry Stone, Mr. Jordan, Mark Taylor, Mr. Colheur, Jeremiah Simpson, and the present pastor, Rev. Henry Lucas. An excellent Sabbath-school is connected with this church. Some of the history of this church is embraced in that of the church of the same denomination in Greenfield, to which the reader is referred.

The Plum Run Baptist Church edifice is located on the head-waters of Plum Run, a short distance west of Beallsville and south of the National road. The deed for the land on which it stands was made by Joseph Hill, Sr., to Hugh Jennings, and dated Feb 18, 1804. The first pastor of the Plum Run Church of whom any recollection is now had was Henry Speers, but the duration of his pastorate is not known. He was succeeded by Francis Downey, who was in turn succeeded by Cephas McClelland. The next pastor was the Rev. Adah Winnett, who continued in charge till about 1862, after which for a number of years the church was without a pastor. The pastor at the present time and for the past eight years is Elder McInturff. The church has now no trustees, and but seven members, of whom six are females. There has never been any Sabbath-school connected with the church.

Schools.-The first record from which any positive and reliable information is obtained concerning schools in East Bethlehem township is in an assessment-roll of the year 1800, wherein are contained the names of John Donaghoo and Peter R. Hopkins, schoolmasters. Of the latter nothing more is known except the fact that he taught in that year. His name is not mentioned in the assessment-roll of 1801. John Donaghoo taught in the township many years. For several years he taught in a log house on the farm of William Welch, Esq., and later at Beallsville and at Hillshorough, at which last-named place he taught his last term, and entered into the mercantile business there. In 1826 he removed his stock to Fredericktown, where he remained until his death, in 1864. While teaching at the Welch school-house, he was in the habit of walking to Brownsville (seven miles to take lessons in grammar, algebra, and geometry, which he afterwards taught successfully. He was one of the first to introduce the "word method" of teaching the pupils words and sentences. He was a good scholar, an able debater, and was an ardent supporter of the free-school system.

The old school-house in the woods, on the hill northeast of the residence of Daniel Crumrine, was built about 1815, at the corner of four farms,- those of George Crumrine ( now Daniel), of Adam Hewitt (now William Buckingham), of Daniel Zollers (now Neal), and of George Pricker (now Richard Crawford). The teachers were George Dobbs (who lived on the farm adjoining and south of Daniel Crumrine), Hiram Baker, a Mr. Boyd, father of the late William P. Boyd, of Fredericktown, then living at Fredericktown, and walking each day to his school, a distance of nearly four miles. Jeff. McClelland taught there in the winter of 1818-19. Peter Crumrine, lately deceased at the age of seventy-nine years, also taught there. The old road to Fredericktown passed within a few rods of the school-house. At a later date the road was changed to its present location. The schoolhouse above mentioned continued in use for only ten year, and was then abandoned for the Buckingham, or Grove school-house, built on the Buckingham farm in 1825. In 1848 John Reed, an excellent teacher and fine scholar, was discharged from this school for the reason that he taught his pupils words before they knew the alphabet. On this site in 1854 was erected a good brick school-house, which was then considered the best in the county outside the borough of Washington. Joseph B. Wise and ----- Buffington were among the earlier teachers in this house.

A log school-house was erected at Fredericktown about 1810. The most noted of the early teachers in this house was Jonathan Knight, afterwards chief engineer of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. In 1816 a school was taught in a log house at Millsborough by George Dobbs, before mentioned as one of the teachers in the Hill school-house, at the corner of the Crumrine, Hewitt, Zollars, and Pricker farms. Another very old log school-house was located at the Sandy Plain Fair Grounds, and there were several other primitive school-houses of the same kind in different parts of the township.

In 1835, under the operation of the free school law of the preceding year, the sum of $439.19 was assessed and collected in the township for school purposes. The first school directors under the law (elected in March, 1835) were John Bower and J. Cleaver by whom the township was divided into districts. In 1836 the report for the township was "non-accepting, nothing raised, but $171.50 received from the State." In 1838 the amounts from all sources for schools in the township was $574.74.

For the year ending June 2, 1863, the school report showed as follows: Number of schools in township; 9; number of teachers, 9; number of pupils enrolled, 464; amount of school fund, $1601.77.

For the year ending June, 1873, there was shown: Number of schools, 9; number of teachers, 10; number of pupils enrolled, 404; amount of receipts forming school fund, $2585.27.

The report of 1880 gives the following: Number of schools in the township, 10; number of teachers, 10; number of pupils enrolled, 413; amount of receipts for school purposes, $3211.58.

Justices of the Peace.1-- Following is a list of justices of the peace of Bethlehem and East Bethlehem from the erection of the former, Viz.:

Thomas. Crooks, Nov. 21, 1781. Obadiah B. McFadden, June 21, 1839.
Eleazer Jenkins, March 3,1789.
Zephaniah Beall, Sept 20, 1790. Ephraim L. Blaine, April 14, 1840.
Joseph Hill, Aug. 29,1795. John Freeman, April 14, 1840.
Isaac Jenkinson, June 3, 1795. James Moffitt, Jr,, April 11, 1843.
Henry Alexander, April 5,1799. Andrew Bower, April 9, 1844.
Zephaniah Beall, May 2, 1802. Samuel G. Hart, April 15,1845.
Jesse Morris, July 21,1809. Wm. W. Hawthorn, April 14, 1846.
John Bower, Dec. 10, 1813. James Moffitt, April 11, 1848.
Jesse Bumgarten, Jan.23, 1816. Isaac N. Cleaver, April 9, 1850.
William Welsh, Dec. 10, 1816. Neall G. Beall, April 19, 1852.
John White, July 1,1817. John Hormell, April 10, 1855.
Henry Alexander, Dec. 10, 1817. Isaac N. Cleaver, April 16, 1856.
Robert Quail, March 6, 1823. Benjamin F. Bower, April 10,1860.
Ephraim L Blaine, April 12, 1827. Isaac N. Cleaver, May 10, 1861.
John W. Davis, April 23, 1828. Stephen H. Morton, July 12,1865.
Jesse Cooper, April 20, 1829. J. W. Quall, July 12,1865.
John Freeman, Jan. 24, 1833. Matthew Blaine, Nov. 30, 1870.
William Hopkins, Jan. 24, 1834. Matthew Blaine, Jan. 26, 1874.
John Grable, April 24, 1834. P. F. Wolfe, May 24, 1874.
Andrew Bower, Aug. 10, 1836. James Morton, March 21,1877.
Andrew Cox, Jan. 18, 1838. Abirah Jones, March 27,1879.

[1The original township of Bethlehem was divided into East and West Bethlehem in 1790. In 1803 they were erected into one district, and so remained till 1838, when they were separated. This list embraces the justices for the old township of Bethlehem, with those for the district composed of the two township, and those for East Bethlehem during the period of its separate existence as a district.]

Salt-Works.-About the year 1822, Henry Wise sunk a well for salt water upon the river bluff about two miles below Millsborough, on the Monongahela River, near the mouth of Fish Pot Run. For many years water was evaporated in kettles. The works are at present owned and worked by Regester & Bair. The well is sunk to the depth of five hundred and eight feet. Six hundred bushels of, salt are produced per month,


*Boyd Crumrine, "History of Washington County, Pennsylvania with Biographical Sketches of Many of Its Pioneers and Prominent Men" (Philadelphia: L. H. Leverts & Co., 1882).

Transcribed by George and Mary Ann Plance of Gainesville, FL in October 1998. Published in November 1998 on the Washington County, PA USGenWeb pages at http://www.chartiers.com/


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