Science and Technology
Africans utilized bows and arrows for both weapons and hunting purposes. They used iron-pointed spears as weapons as well. The Africans built fortified enclosures. These were hilltop fortifications with many roms and maze-like passageways. The stones used in the building were cut so perfectly that they stayed in place without the help of mortar. Many African countries, such as Zimbabwe and Songhai, also built grand fleets with many warships. Africans probably developed agriculture. They made iron tools which helped aid them in farming. They also had universities and scholarships, as is evident in Songhai with Mohammed I Askia, who supported a revival of Islamic scholarships based around the university there.