Site hosted by Angelfire.com: Build your free website today!
Provided by USConstitution.net
------------------------------

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union,
establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common
defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to
ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the
United States of America.

Article I.

Section 1
All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the 
United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Section 2
The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second 
Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall 
have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of 
the State Legislature.

No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of 
twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who 
shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be 
chosen.

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States 
which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, 
which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, 
including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not 
taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.

The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting 
of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten 
Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of 
Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State 
shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be 
made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, 
Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut 
five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland 
six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five and Georgia three.

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive 
Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.

The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and 
shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

Section 3
The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each 
State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shall 
have one Vote.

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, 
they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the 
Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second 
Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the 
third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be 
chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, 
during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may 
make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which 
shall then fill such Vacancies.

No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty 
Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, 
when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but 
shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, 
in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of 
President of the United States.

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for 
that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the 
United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be 
convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from 
Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or 
Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be 
liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to 
Law.

Section 4
The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and 
Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; 
but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except 
as to the Place of Chusing Senators.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall 
be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a 
different Day.

Section 5
Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of 
its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do 
Business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be 
authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and 
under such Penalties as each House may provide.

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for 
disorderly Behavior, and, with the Concurrence of two-thirds, expel a Member.

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time 
publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require 
Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question 
shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of 
the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that 
in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Section 6
The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their 
Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United 
States. They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the 
Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of 
their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for 
any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other 
Place.

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, 
be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States which 
shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been increased 
during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, 
shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.


Section 7
All bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; 
but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, 
shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United 
States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his 
Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the 
Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after 
such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it 
shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it 
shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it 
shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be 
determined by Yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and 
against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If 
any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays 
excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, 
in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment 
prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and 
House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) 
shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same 
shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall 
be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according 
to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.


Section 8
The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and 
Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general 
Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be 
uniform throughout the United States;

To borrow money on the credit of the United States;

To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and 
with the Indian Tribes;

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject 
of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the 
Standard of Weights and Measures;

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin 
of the United States;

To establish Post Offices and Post Roads;

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited 
Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings 
and Discoveries;

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and 
Offenses against the Law of Nations;

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning 
Captures on Land and Water;

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be 
for a longer Term than two Years;

To provide and maintain a Navy;

To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, 
suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the Militia, and for 
governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United 
States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, 
and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline 
prescribed by Congress;

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District 
(not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and 
the acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United 
States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent 
of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of 
Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings; And

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into 
Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this 
Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or 
Officer thereof.

Section 9
The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing 
shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to 
the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed 
on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

The privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when 
in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.

No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed. No capitation, or 
other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or 
Enumeration herein before directed to be taken.

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the 
Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, 
one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations 
made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and 
Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person 
holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of 
the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind 
whatever, from any King, Prince or foreign State.

Section 10
No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters 
of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but 
gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, 
ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any 
Title of Nobility.

No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties 
on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing 
it's inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by 
any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the 
United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul 
of the Congress.

No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any duty of Tonnage, keep 
Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact 
with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually 
invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

Article II.

Section 1
The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of 
America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together 
with the Vice-President chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows:

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, 
a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives 
to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or 
Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United 
States, shall be appointed an Elector.

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two 
persons, of whom one at least shall not lie an Inhabitant of the same State 
with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and 
of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and 
transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to 
the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence 
of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the 
Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes 
shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of 
Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and 
have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall 
immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a 
Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like 
Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be 
taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; a quorum 
for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two-thirds of the 
States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In 
every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest 
Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there 
should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from 
them by Ballot the Vice-President.

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on 
which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the 
United States.

No person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at 
the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office 
of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not 
have attained to the Age of thirty-five Years, and been fourteen Years a 
Resident within the United States.

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, 
Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said 
Office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by 
Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of 
the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as 
President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be 
removed, or a President shall be elected.

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, 
which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the Period for which he 
shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other 
Emolument from the United States, or any of them.

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following 
Oath or Affirmation:

"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of 
President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, 
protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."

Section 2
The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United 
States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual 
Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the 
principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any subject 
relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to 
Grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offenses against the United States, except in 
Cases of Impeachment.

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make 
Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall 
nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint 
Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, 
and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein 
otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress 
may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think 
proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of 
Departments.

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during 
the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End 
of their next Session.

Section 3
He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the 
Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge 
necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both 
Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with 
Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he 
shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he 
shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all 
the Officers of the United States.

Section 4
The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, 
shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, 
Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

Article III.

Section 1
The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, 
and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and 
establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold 
their Offices during good Behavior, and shall, at stated Times, receive for 
their Services a Compensation which shall not be diminished during their 
Continuance in Office.

Section 2
The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under 
this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which 
shall be made, under their Authority; to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other 
public Ministers and Consuls; to all Cases of admiralty and maritime 
Jurisdiction; to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party; to 
Controversies between two or more States; between a State and Citizens of 
another State; between Citizens of different States; between Citizens of the 
same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a 
State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and 
those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original 
Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall 
have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and 
under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such 
Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been 
committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such 
Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.

Section 3
Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against 
them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person 
shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the 
same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.

The Congress shall have power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no 
Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except 
during the Life of the Person attainted.

Article IV.

Section 1
Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, 
and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general 
Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be 
proved, and the Effect thereof.

Section 2
The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities 
of Citizens in the several States.

A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall 
flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on demand of the 
executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be 
removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, 
escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, 
be discharged from such Service or Labour, But shall be delivered up on Claim 
of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.

Section 3
New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new States 
shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any 
State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or parts of States, 
without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of 
the Congress.

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and 
Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United 
States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice 
any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.

Section 4
The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican 
Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on 
Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature 
cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.

Article V.

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall 
propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the 
Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for 
proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and 
Purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of 
three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths 
thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the 
Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One 
thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and 
fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, 
without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

Article VI.

All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this 
Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this 
Constitution, as under the Confederation.

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in 
Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the 
Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the 
Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or 
Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the 
several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of 
the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or 
Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be 
required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United 
States.

Article VII.

The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the 
Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.

Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the 
Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred 
and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United States of America the 
Twelfth. In Witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names.

Go Washington - President and deputy from Virginia

New Hampshire - John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman

Massachusetts - Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King

Connecticut - Wm Saml Johnson, Roger Sherman

New York - Alexander Hamilton

New Jersey - Wil Livingston, David Brearley, Wm Paterson, Jona. Dayton

Pensylvania - B Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robt Morris, Geo. Clymer, Thos 
FitzSimons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson, Gouv Morris

Delaware - Geo. Read, Gunning Bedford jun, John Dickinson, Richard Bassett, 
Jaco. Broom

Maryland - James McHenry, Dan of St Tho Jenifer, Danl Carroll

Virginia - John Blair, James Madison Jr.

North Carolina - Wm Blount, Richd Dobbs Spaight, Hu Williamson

South Carolina - J. Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Charles Pinckney, 
Pierce Butler

Georgia - William Few, Abr Baldwin

Attest: William Jackson, Secretary


Amendment I
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or 
prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or 
of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition 
the Government for a redress of grievances.

Amendment II
A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the 
right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

Amendment III
No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the 
consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by 
law.

Amendment IV
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and 
effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and 
no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or 
affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the 
persons or things to be seized.

Amendment V
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, 
unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising 
in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time 
of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense 
to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any 
criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, 
liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be 
taken for public use, without just compensation.

Amendment VI
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and 
public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime 
shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously 
ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the 
accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory 
process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of 
Counsel for his defence.

Amendment VII
In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty 
dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a 
jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than 
according to the rules of the common law.

Amendment VIII
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel 
and unusual punishments inflicted.

Amendment IX
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed 
to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Amendment X
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor 
prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to 
the people.

Amendment XI
The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any 
suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States 
by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.

Amendment XII
The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for 
President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant 
of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person 
voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as 
Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as 
President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President and of the number of 
votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to 
the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of 
the Senate;

The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of 
Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;

The person having the greatest Number of votes for President, shall be the 
President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors 
appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having 
the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as 
President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, 
the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by 
states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this 
purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and 
a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House 
of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice 
shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then 
the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other 
constitutional disability of the President.

The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the 
Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors 
appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers 
on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the 
purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a 
majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person 
constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to 
that of Vice-President of the United States.

Amendment XIII
1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime 
whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United 
States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate 
legislation.

Amendment XIV
1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the 
jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State 
wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge 
the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any 
State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of 
law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the 
laws.

2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to 
their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, 
excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the 
choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, 
Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or 
the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male 
inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the 
United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, 
or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the 
proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole 
number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of 
President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the 
United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a 
member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of 
any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to 
support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in 
insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the 
enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove 
such disability.

4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, 
including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in 
suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the 
United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred 
in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for 
the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and 
claims shall be held illegal and void.

5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the 
provisions of this article.

Amendment XV
1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or 
abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or 
previous condition of servitude.

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate 
legislation.

Amendment XVI
The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from 
whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and 
without regard to any census or enumeration.

Amendment XVII
The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each 
State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall 
have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications 
requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the 
executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such 
vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the 
executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the 
vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of 
any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.

Amendment XVIII
1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, 
or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, 
or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to 
the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce 
this article by appropriate legislation.

3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an 
amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as 
provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the 
submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

Amendment XIX
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or 
abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Amendment XX
1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th 
day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d 
day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this 
article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then 
begin.

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting 
shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint 
a different day.

3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the 
President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become 
President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for 
the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to 
qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President 
shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein 
neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, 
declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to 
act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President 
or Vice President shall have qualified.

4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the 
persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever 
the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the 
death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President 
whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.

5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the 
ratification of this article.

6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an 
amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the 
several States within seven years from the date of its submission.

Amendment XXI
1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States 
is hereby repealed.

2. The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession 
of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in 
violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.

3. The article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an 
amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided 
in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof 
to the States by the Congress.

Amendment XXII
1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, 
and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for 
more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President 
shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this 
Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President, when this 
Article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may 
be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term 
within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of 
President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

2. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an 
amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the 
several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States 
by the Congress.

Amendment XXIII
1. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall 
appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct: A number of electors of 
President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and 
Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were 
a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in 
addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for 
the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors 
appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such 
duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate 
legislation.

Amendment XXIV
1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other 
election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or 
Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be 
denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to 
pay any poll tax or other tax.

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate 
legislation.

Amendment XXV
1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or 
resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the 
President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon 
confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate 
and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he 
is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he 
transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties 
shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers 
of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law 
provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of 
the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is 
unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President 
shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting 
President.

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the 
Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration 
that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office 
unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of 
the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, 
transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the 
Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the 
President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon 
Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty eight hours for that 
purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty one days after 
receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, 
within twenty one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by 
two thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the 
powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge 
the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers 
and duties of his office.

Amendment XXVI
1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or 
older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any 
State on account of age.

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate 
legislation.

Amendment XXVII
No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and 
Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall 
have intervened.