All calculations use International Bureau of Standards conversion values without truncation.
All conversions are accurate to 15 significant digits.
Weight and Mass (Force)
I am not to be held libel or responsible for any monetary losses, injuries, mistakes, or problems which might come from the use of any improper conversions that might be output from this math engine. It is done as a service to you, so please use at your own risk.
However, I have done my best to make this the most accurate conversion program you'll find anywhere. Each conversion should be as close to being absolutely exact to conversion values as you'll find in any resource and should be able to be used with confidence for the most demanding of scientific observations.
I have done much research to bring you the same precision you'll find from the Bureau of Standards... Enjoy.
(All rights reserved).
1. Click in the appropriate 'From' box and type the value you wish to convert from.
2. Click on the 'Conversion Type' box to the right of the 'To' and 'From' entry boxes and select the measurement types for both the 'To' and 'From' pull-down menus.
3. Click on the corresponding 'CONVERT VALUE' button and instantly read the result in the 'To' box.
4. If you desire to convert the 'To' answer to another type of measurement click on the " 'To' to 'From' " button. This will transfer the last 'To' answer and conversion type to the 'From' box.
5. The 'To' box then registers that you should now select a new conversion type. Select your new conversion type and then click the CONVERT button.
6. Click 'Clear' at any time to black-out both boxes.
7. I've added the ability for the program to automatically recompute the value the instant that you have selected any new measurement type. This will allow you to make very rapid conversions between various types on the same Input value and measurement types.
8. It's harder to explain the action than to do it. It's action is simple.
All conversion values were decided upon by using exact Bureau of Standards conversion values. However, be aware that the rightmost digit will sometimes not be correct because of roundoff errors with your browser. By experiment, the answer is always precise with Netscape 3.0 to 15 significant digits if you round off the 16th significant digit (far more digits than most of you will ever need).
Because of the succession of calculations and the improper nature of browser's handling of far right-digit rounding, some values would normally be improperly displayed as .9999999999999 instead of 1 on some browsers. However, I have included a rounding robot which figures out the browser's problems and trys to compensate for them.
The Artificial Intelligence Rounder which I've created attempts to figure out what your browser is meaning when it makes its rounding errors. Click on the left radio button to see how your browser determines the value, click on the right button to enable the Artificial Intelligence Robot.
I have also conveniently arranged the conversions in a manner to greatly reduce the roundoff error problem, however, and I believe you'll find this to be an incredibly accurate engine.
As of version 5.0, all categories have been checked for accuracy to at least 14 digits. The temperature converter has not been absolutely verified for 14 digit accuracy, so be forewarned. However, all temperature values have been verified for boiling point, freezing point and absolute zero. If you put in a value that is lower than absolute zero, it will automatically supply absolute zero for you in each category.
Of course, you should be aware that Weight and Mass are not the same unless you have exactly 1 G. Multiply by the G value if you are doing conversions between the Earth and somewhere that doesn't have 1 Gravity.
New to version 5.1 is the ability to convert between picas, points and twips (used in Adobe programs). Be aware that the 'old' way of determining twips and point sizes is different than the 'new' way. In the old system one point = .013837" and thus 72 points was actually .996264". However, when Desktop publishing came in, a new definition was made (as is illustrated on Adobe's site) that 72 points exactly equals one inch. And, thus, their definition that one inch equals 1440 twips (when in actuality it would equal 1445.4xxxx twips under the old system). I have chosen to go with the Adobe definition of 72 points equaling an inch because most will need to use this twips conversion value. Thus, when you convert twips to inches or centimeters you will get an answer of 72 points per inch or 1440 twips per inch.
New to version 5.2 is the ability to convert troy ounces, troy pounds, pennyweights, and carats to allow those who measure precious metals such as gold and platinum to use the converter. Again, I have kept with the 15 digits of precision standard that the rest of the interface adheres to. On July 1, 1959, all English speaking countries decided to adopt an Avoidupois pound weighing exactly 453.59237 g.
I have kept away from many of the old-world measurements such as the millions of now unused measurement values such as the quatern, the frail, the firkin, the tub, etc... I figure that it would clog up the useful ones if I placed these now useless conversions into the converter.
If you find any discrepancies with any conversion or with the rounder, let me know. Realize that some tables that you compare with might have gotten their values from pre-1964 sources and thus the calculation values might seem to be different. However, mine are the up-to-date ones as far as I know and should be able to be reliably used in any of your projects.
If you have any questions or suggestions please send them to: