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Why the Big Bang is Wrong

John Kierein,

UPDATE: OCTOBER 2017: JEAN-PIERRE VIGIER Section below. Photon-photon redshift.


The Big Bang theory of the universe is wrong because the cosmological red shift is due to the Compton effect rather than the Doppler effect.  See  The Endless, Boundless, Stable Universe by Grote Reber and Hubble's Constant in Terms of the Compton Effect by John Kierein. The latter describes how the Compton effect cosmological red shift accelerates with increasing distance.

Reber showed that the Compton effect was the cause of the red shift in order to explain the observations of bright, very long wavelength, extragalactic radio waves.  Kierein used the Compton effect explanation to explain quasars and the red shift on the sun. 

Quasars may be much closer than their red shift would indicate if they have an "intrinsic" red shift due to being surrounded by a 'fuzzy' atmosphere containing free electrons and other material.  This concentration of electrons produces the unusual red shift as the light travels through it and loses energy to these electrons per the Compton effect. The famed astronomer, Margaret Burbidge, is a strong proponent of the quasar intrinsic red shift. She questions their distance and believes quasars are associated with lower red shift galaxies. She is co-author of the definitive book on quasars, "Quasi-Stellar Objects", and even has an asteroid named for her. If some quasars are so nearby, even in our galaxy, they may even exhibit proper motion in the sky as the Earth travels around the sun.  Such a proper motion has been seen.  See Quasar Absolute Proper Motion for a table that includes such proper motion observations. 

Some such quasars may be double stars, with one member being an ordinary star and the other exhibiting a large red shift and being labeled as a quasar.  The 100,000th Hubble Image is a good candidate for such a pair.

(UPDATE JULY 2014) MICROQUASARS HAVE BEEN RECENTLY DISCOVERED IN OUR GALAXY WITH HIGH INTRINSIC RED SHIFTS. THE FIRST ONE, A DOUBLE STAR MEMBER, SS433 HAS A RED SHIFT CORRESPONDING TO 12,000 KILOMETERS PER SECOND DOPPLER. (SEE WIKIPEDIA SS433 ARTICLE). (Would these really be called "micro" if they weren't known to be in our galaxy? If its red shift obeyed Hubble's law, SS433 would be over 5,000 galactic diameters distant.)

Ken Kellermann of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory has also suggested that the red shift of quasars may be intrinsic and not an indication of their distance in a classic 1972 paper Radio Galaxies, Quasars and Cosmology published in the Astronomical Journal.

The late Halton C. Arp summarizes the observational evidence in this wonderful YouTube video Halton Arp Intrinsic Red Shift that gives the connection of intrinsic red shift quasars to low red shift galaxies. His theoretical explanation is in agreement with my "Gravity and the Red Shift" YouTube video linked below where I give the mechanism for electrons to increase in mass. (Arp and I had a friendly relationship since the late 1960s. He gave me R. F. Sistero's paper I reference in my papers when we visited in his Pasadena office before he transferred to Max Planck in Munich. He eventually agreed with the validity of Lesagian pushing gravity theory I presented to him, as he mentions in the video.)

A recent discovery of a quasar with a huge red shift greater than 7 has called into question whether the big bang is wrong. Most distant quasar raises questions. All problems are gone if its redshift is intrinsic. Similarly, this quasar would not be so huge if it were close-by.

The red shift on the sun is obviously not Doppler since the sun is not moving away from us.  This shift shows a variation in magnitude that correlates with the number of electrons along the line of sight.  It is smallest at the solar center and greatest at the limb where we are looking through the thickest part of the sun's atmosphere.  John Kierein and Brooks Sharp showed this correlation as a Compton effect interpretation in the journal "Solar Physics" in March of 1968.  Compton himself believed this was the cause of the solar red shift (see Compton, A. H., 1923 Phil. Mag. 46, 897). The electrons on the sun are concentrated in altitude by gravity with the greatest density near the sun's surface (the photosphere) to produce the sun's intrinsic red shift. Similarly, the quasar red shift (and other bright, hot young stars' "K effect" intrinsic red shift - see Arp's book, "Seeing Red") have an intrinsic Compton effect red shift concentrated at or very near the object's surface.

In addition to this red shift on the sun, which is there all the time and is on the order of 1 part in a million, there has been measured a gamma ray red shift that occurred only during a large solar flare. This solar flare red shift was nearly 1 percent or one part in a hundred! It was measured by the RHESSI satellite. The red shift varied by the element, the heavier element having a bigger red shift. I believe this red shift is also due to the Compton effect and is caused by the gamma rays ionizing the elements and releasing electrons from these element "targets". The heavier elements have greater numbers of electrons to release and consequently have multiple Compton collisions and greater red shifts. Other gamma ray red shifts such as this are also intrinsic Compton effect red shifts.

A quasar can change into a non-quasar if its red shift is intrinsic. See The Case of the Missing Quasar.

When the Pioneer 6 spacecraft passed behind the sun, its telemetry signal travelled through the sun's corona and was shifted in frequency to the longer wavelength by approximately 1 part in 100 million. This shift is compatible with the solar shift and can be explained as an interaction with the electrons in the solar atmosphere. (Note that this paper explicitly says this is not due to the Compton effect. I disagree with this. The Compton effect is the underlying mechanism for the explanation given. The authors do not recognize the proportionality of the number of collisions to the photon wavelength, nor the reconstruction of the group velocity wavefront vector consisting of Huygens' secondary wavelets, which results in no blurring.)

For the Compton effect to cause the cosmological red shift, intergalactic space must have a density of free electrons and/or positrons. The further light travels through this transparent medium, the greater the red shift - and Hubble's law follows. The existence of electrons and positrons in intergalactic space has been shown by observations of electron-positron annihilation gamma rays coming from above our galactic plane. This is the direction our galaxy is plowing into the intergalactic medium. (See "Peculiar Velocity of the Sun and its Relation to the Cosmic Microwave Background" by J.M. Stewart & D.W.Sciama, Nature vol. 216,p 748f, Nov. 25, 1967.) This is observed from the, appropriately named, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory in orbit above the Earth's atmosphere.

Indeed, while intergalactic space was once thought to be empty, now we know it is filled with clouds of high velocity gas that contain molecular hydrogen. This molecular hydrogen is thought to come from the condensation of hydrogen atoms that are just free electrons and protons. When light hits these free electrons, it produces the Compton effect red shift.

Recently discovered cosmic radio bursts show dispersion as they interact with intergalactic electrons. These interactions also must cause a Compton effect red shift. About 10,000 of these bursts are inferred to occur every day. Next generation radio telescopes should be able to detect these highly dispersed sources routinely. The high dispersion of extragalactic radio pulses was predicted by Grote Reber and me from the Compton Effect interpetation of the red shift. See my 1981 video "Gravity and the Red Shift" on YouTube linked below.

The recent pinpointing of the extragalactic nature of gamma ray bursts and the delay in arrival times of longer wavelength radiation from these events confirms this prediction as shown in Dark Matter by John Kierein. This time lag for longer wavelengths is shown by Dr. Jay Norris to provide a method of measuring distance to the gamma ray source.  

If the Compton effect causes the red shift, the universe is not expanding, but rather is "static". Max Born (and others - see below) did an analysis of the background temperature of such a universe and found that it doesn't differ greatly from the observed 3 degree kelvin background.

Some say that the Compton effect should cause the light to be scattered and distance sources blurred. Does scattering cause blurring? Not necessarily. Note how the Milky Way stars at the edge of the Barnard 68 dust cloud are not at all blurred even though they are dimmed to extinction as their photons are absorbed and scattered. Also note how, when this object is viewed in the Infrared, the background stars shine right through this cloud without blurring! Dark matter causes light to bend without blurring.

The Compton effect is completely explained in terms of conservation of energy and momentum. The electric and magnetic vectors of the radiation are not affected, so the ExH vector proceeds with a slower velocity than c according to the index of refraction of the transparent intergalactic medium. The wavefront of the group velocity travels in the ExH direction with the wavefront reconstructed as Huygens' secondary wavelets at the scattering center sites. Thus, the light is slowed slightly by the Compton interaction with the transparent medium, but the source is not blurred. When the radiation is a short pulse, this slowing shows up as dispersion of the pulse.

The Big Bang Has Many Problems

There are a great many problems with the Big Bang Theory that have not been solved.  Many of these are identified in Bill Mitchell's paper, " Big Bang Theory Under Fire". These problems include the idea that there are many objects observed that are older than the time from the big bang, which is variously estimated to be from 10 to 15 billion years ago, with the best estimates being 10 billion years using trigonometry rather than cepheid variable brightness. Better estimates of distance are also derived from "red clump stars" standard candles than from Cepheid variable measurements. (The time to the so-called big bang is still quite uncertain. The debate continues, as in the May 2014 distance measurement workshop at the Munich Institute for Astro- and Particle Physics, but radio astronomy results are not discussed. Some results have been called the "skeleton in the closet".)

Stars and globular clusters in our galaxy are thought to be older than 15 billion years and there seem to be similar stars that are seen in galaxies that are many billions of light years away from us and thus apparently formed closer to the time of the big bang.

Measurements of the uranium content of stars has produced a minimum age of the universe of at least 12 billion years, whereas the best direct measurements of Hubble's constant produce an age of 10 billion years. The iron content of quasars is much too great for their age. Radio galaxy measurement has found carbon in the early universe which shouldn't be there if there was a big bang since it takes too long to form.

A dusty galaxy has been found that shouldn't exist so close to the big bang.

No big bang means no lithium problem.

Even our earth is thought to be 5 billion years old, and is expected to exist for another 5 billion years before the sun expands and swallows it up.  The atoms and molecules of the earth are thought to have been generated in previous stars that went through several cycles of supernovae. Even though supernovae are thought to last only fraction of our sun's lifetime, it is highly improbable that there is sufficient time for these cycles to have occurred since a big bang. VLT observations of a gamma ray burst has found an early galaxy with ingredients much older than the big bang.

Similarly, our galaxy is rotating at a speed that only permits from 45 to 60 rotations since the big bang, which (according to Mitchell) is not a long enough time for it to achieve its spiral shape.  Many spiral galaxies are seen at a large distance and therefore from a time closer to the big bang which would indicate they would have had time for even fewer rotations. Recent Hubble Photo shows spiral galaxies within 5% of big bang time leaving time for only 2 or 3 rotations at our galaxy's rotation rate. The galaxies in this photo don't seem to be crowded closer together as one would expect if they were really so close to the big bang.

There are some very large chains of galaxies spread throughout the universe.  It is believed these large structures, like the "great wall", would require many hundreds of billions of years to form.

Hercules A appears to be the largest object observed in the known universe in radio astronomy observations. It would not be such an unusually large intrinsic object if its redshift is intrinsic due to local Compton effect scattering, and it is nearer than its redshift would indicate.

Galactic redshift surveys show a regularity in the spacing of galaxies a quarter of the way to the time of the supposed big bang. This is totally different from a big bang expectation which would have them closer together as they get closer to the time of the big bang.

How do galaxies collide if they are flying away from each other?

Mature galaxies are found near the time of a supposed big bang that have not had enough time to develop.

There are also some great problems with the "singularity" of the big bang.  What happened before the big bang??  The big bang theorists can't answer this question and just say it's a meaningless question. (They like to say it's like asking "What's north of the North Pole?" - Actually it's not like asking that at all. North is a direction; time is a measure of change. If there was no change before the big bang, then how could it have started?)

If there was a big bang, the temperature of the background radiation would have had to be much higher in the past.  Yet there are observed cosmic ray particles, that are protons or nuclei of atoms that are traveling through space at speeds approaching the speed of light.  These particles can't plow through the background radiation field at these higher temperatures without interacting with the photons of such a high temperature background and being stopped.  But the highest energy cosmic rays are observed at energies beyond this theoretical cutoff  energy.

The temperature of intergalactic space was predicted by Guillaume, Eddington, Regener, Nernst, Herzberg, Finlay-Freundlich and Max Born based on a universe in dynamical equilibrium without expansion. They predicted the 2.7 degree K background temperature prior to and better than models based on the Big Bang. See "History of the 2.7 K Temperature Prior to Penzias and Wilson" by A. K. T. Assis and M. C. D. Neves in Aperion Vol.2, Nr. 3, page 79f, July 1995. See also their other paper: "Redshift revisited" (Unfortunately, their second paper misses the greater number of collisions a longer wavelength photon has when the red shift is comprised of multiple Compton interactions.) Pierre-Marie Robitaille shows problems with the big bang interpretation of the Cosmic Background Radiation maps in this "YouTube video."

There are many other discrepancies in redshift observations that are much better explained by non-Doppler shifts. Hubble, of course, didn't agree that the redshift was Doppler (see his book "The Observational Approach to Cosmology" or Allan Sandage's discussion of Hubble's beliefs).  There were several difficulties with this interpretation that he pointed out.  Not the least of which is that if it were Doppler, then not only should each photon be stretched out by the Doppler effect, but also the distance between each photon.   Because the photon flux is reduced, this causes the object undergoing a Doppler redshift to appear less bright than a corresponding object undergoing a non-doppler redshift.  Hubble knew his observations were not in agreement with this brightness correction.  He also knew that a simpler, non-curved-space cosmology resulted from a non-Doppler interpretation, and he felt that simpler was better.  He didn't know what causes the photons to lose energy as they travel through space, but he felt that it is some "new principle of nature" that I think is the Compton effect.

I came across these letters of correspondence between Grote Reber and Edwin Hubble.

1939 Reber to Hubble

1939 Hubble to Reber

1942 Reber to Hubble

The 1942 letter describes Reber's suggestion that the red shift would be due to the interaction of light with a medium of free electrons in intergalactic space along with a magnetic field. Grote later came to the conclusion that the red shift was the Compton effect from light travelling through intergalactic free electrons in order to explain his southern sky observations at 144 meters and 500 meters wavelength. See

his 1968 paper

This is the same conclusion that I independently made in conjunction with Dr. Brooks Sharp to explain quasar intrinsic red shifts and the solar red shift, published at about the same time as Reber's above paper.

As big bang theorists attempt to solve the age problem by making the time to the big bang longer, they exacerbate the quasar problem. Quasars become even farther away and intrinsically brighter. Yet their temperature remains that of ordinary stars as exhibited by emission spectra of metallic ions that can only exist at a limited range of temperature. They are known to be about stellar size since they vary in brightness on a scale of a few minutes to seconds. How do they stay so bright at such a low temperature in such a small volume? They can't. They must have an intrinsic non-Doppler redshift and be nearby to be explained.

If neutrinos have mass about 1 ten millionth the mass of the electron, their Compton Effect red shift would be 10 million times that of that of the electron. The probability of a neutrino Compton Effect remains to be determined.


Back in the days when I was working on the Skylab Astronomy and Space Physics experiments at Martin Marietta and teaching a course called "Anti-Gravity" at the Denver Free University (not to be confused with Denver U.), I went to a lecture given by Jean-Pierre Vigier at Denver U. I spoke with J-P after the lecture and told him my ideas about the Compton Effect causing the cosmological red shift. He was excited by the ideas and arranged for us to meet at DU to discuss this further. We talked for the entire next afternoon. I had published the article in Solar Physics with Brooks Sharp explaining the center to limb variation in solar red shift and quasar red shift in terms of the Compton Effect and also become friends with Grote Reber who explained his hecto-metric wavelength cosmic background brightness observations similarly as being caused by the Compton effect.

J-P had been selected to be Einstein's assistant at Princeton, but the State Department wouldn't allow him to get a visa because J-P was a French Communist. (Sorta the Bernie Sanders of his time imo.) (Einstein couldn't get a clearance because he was a pacifist.) I think physics might have been different if J-P had been granted the visa.

J-P explained to me that he believed that photons had a tiny mass - like the neutrino is now thought to have. He believed this explained the Einstein gedanken experiment for the principle of equivalence of inertial mass and gravitational mass and helped explain gravitational lensing. He also believed this explained the photon and electron double slit experiment: the electromagnetic wave interference went through both slits and the photon or electron only went through the slit where the mass particle was. It also explained the slowing of light in a transparent medium with reconstruction of the electromagnetic wavefront and Compton scattering without blurring. Some of his ideas are summarized here

But the most exciting part of our discussion was that J-P believed the cosmological red shift was due to photon-photon interaction with the photon having a Compton effect exchange with mass of the second photon. I was worried that this should cause as much blue shift as red shift. I had explained to him my ideas about the Compton effect causing electron and other free particles to increase in mass from simultaneous collisions from all directions causing the velocity vectors to cancel and the energy to convert to mass from E=mc^2. He said a similar thing would happen to the photon mass and only a red shift would result. We believed the mass of the electron and photon could increase until it reached a stable mass (e.g. the mass of a neutron plus original mass of the electron or photon as the case might be.) Then new massive particles would be created. These could be the source of cosmic ray particles or even "dark matter".

Photon-photon interactions are now being observed!

I am coming around to Vigier's ideas. It really helps explain how a Compton effect red shift would not result in scattering of the EM wave in the far field while allowing the Compton effect to occur and produce a red shift in the near field.

An interesting effect of the Compton effect causing the cosmological red-shift and the consequent target electrons or anti-electrons getting heavier (Or Jean-Pierre's photon masses getting heavier) is that explains why the universe is overwhelmingly full of ordinary mass rather than anti-particle mass. When the Compton effect target mass has increased to the mass of the target mass plus a neutron, then a neutron is created. This then would decay into a hydrogen atom (proton plus electron). This is true for both an increasing mass of an electron or a positron. So the new mass is an increase in ordinary particles over anti-particles. Both the increased mass of an electron or a positron (or a photon) would become ordinary hydrogen.

Paul Marmet has presented ideas very similar to the idea that the Compton effect causes the red shift and presents additional evidence against the big bang at his web site.

The stability of a static universe with a Compton Effect cosmological red shift is explained here and another paper can be found here. A paper showing no time dilation in quasar variability can be found here. Time dilation would be required if the quasar red shift were Doppler, so this result indicates an intrinsic non-Doppler quasar red shift such as a Compton effect red shift.

You'll love William Mitchell's book: "Bye Bye Big Bang: Hello Reality" . Also Lyndon Ashmore's book: "Big Bang Blasted".

Ever wonder what causes gravity? See the book: PUSHING GRAVITY. I have a chapter in the book.

Scientists have measured the speed of gravity to be the speed of light as Charles Brush and I predicted. (Unfortunately, Brush later believed the pushing gravity was due to shorter wavelengths rather than longer.) This is in contrast to Tom Van Flandern's prediction that the speed of gravity was many orders of magnitude faster than the speed of light (which others have rebutted).

Brush invented the carbon arc lamp, a dynamo and introduced street lighting to the world. Brush Electric eventually merged with Edison Electric to form General Electric. Brush was first president of Linde Air Products, Brush also invented storage batteries and wind generators. Brush founded Brush Wellman Beryllium (now Materion) and, I recently learned, was a founder of Union Carbide (now a Dow subsidiary) who made me a Union Carbide Scholar at Notre Dame.

My brother, Tom, is a weatherman on WRC in Washington,DC. He often meets scientists, astronauts, etc. He asked the late Carl Sagan what he thought about the Compton effect causing the red shift. Carl's response was: "That would change EVERYTHING!"

This video explains what it changes. View the still valid, 1981 classic ugly sweater video: "Gravity and the Red Shift" on YouTube in 6 ten minute segments Part 1 , Part 2 , Part 3 , Part 4 , Part 5 , Part 6 . My updates are in the comments. It describes the cause of gravity in the endless, static universe. A big Winston Cone would concentrate gravity.

Checkout my other websites: Where the Extraterrestrial Life Is

and: What Causes Gravity

John Kierein has a BS in Physics from Notre Dame, an MBA from Indiana U., and a long history of state of the art work in the aerospace industry, working at such places as Picatinny Arsenal, McDonnell (now Boeing), Lockheed Martin, Rockwell, Ball Aerospace, KinetX, Spectrum Astro, and SM&A. He has worked on projects such as Gemini, Skylab's astronomy & space sciences experiments, Space Shuttle science experiments (including the first Shuttle payload: the Shuttle Imaging Radar-A antenna), IRIDIUM constellation orbital mechanics, a myriad of small scientific satellites (including CRRES, ERBS, Deep Space 1, RHESSI, Swift) and a long list of proposals as a consultant for management of technical volumes to such companies as Boeing, Raytheon, Lockheed Martin, ITT, Kistler Aerospace, Bell Helicopters, DRS, etc. Proposals included launch services for Skybridge, JSF, many weapon systems, scientific instruments for NOAA satellites, software-controlled radios, etc. These proposals had well over 90% win rate. He also has consulted on projects such as the Exo-atmospheric Kill Vehicle sensor package, the Future Combat Systems (system of systems), and anti-ballistic missile programs.

Kierein and Grote Reber developed a friendship that lasted from the 1960s until Reber's death in 2002. The friendship started after they both independently published, within 3 months of each other, the idea that the cosmological redshift was Compton rather than Doppler; Reber in the Journal of the Franklin Institute and Kierein in the journal Solar Physics. (The National Radio Astronomy Observatory has 9 full folders of Kierein correspondence in its Grote Reber Archives). We traipsed around Boulder,CO until we found one of the Wurzburg antennas that Grote had originally helped set up in Sterling, VA to measure the 10.7 cm radiation from the sun which confirmed the solar sunspot cycle. This antenna was subsequently sent to the National Electronics Museum in Lenthicum, MD, thanks to the efforts of Frank Sanders. The Reber Foundation gives a medal annually in Reber's honor. Reber is a winner of the Bruce gold medal, along with E. Margaret Burbidge, Ken Kellermann and Hubble.

Kierein has a grandson, Christopher Lee, with Muscular Dystrophy as a result of a spontaneous mutation. See here.        

Compton Effect Interpretation of Solar Red Shift (Click
Non-Doppler Redshift of Some Galactic Objects
Quasar quartet
Making electrons and positrons
Anomalous Redshifts in Binary Stars
Big bang is flawed
Kierein on Art Bell show June 1996
Official Arp Website
Distant Galaxy Cluster is Older than the Big Bang
Hoyle, Burbidge, Narlikar's new book;
Gamma Rays as a source of electron-positron pairs in intergalactic space
Young punks were booed (last paragraph)
Where are the Quasars?
Biggest Redshift Quasar Poses Problems for Big Bang
Paul Marmet's web page
Gravity 1960 Russian paper
Universe Only 10 Billion Years Old
Solar Eclipse Gravity Anomalies
A Timeless, Boundless, Equilibrium Universe (Click send PDF)
Quasars likely closer than redshifts imply
Big redshift quasar in a low redshift galaxy
Lots of electrons between us and quasars
Early universe galaxies more mature than big bang