Purpose Clauses (also known as “Final” Clauses)

a) In Latin, ut (or negative ne) is used with the Present or Imperfect Subjunctive to express the Purpose of an action

eg venit ut reginam videat
He is coming
{in order that he may see the queen
{in order to see the queen
{to see the queen

Romae manebat ne videretur
He stayed in Rome
{in order that he might not be seen
{in order not to be seen

b) Quo is used instead of ut if the Purpose Clause contains a comparative adjective or adverb

eg collem ascenderunt quo facilius vallem viderent
They climbed the hill to see the valley more easily

c) The relative qui, quae, quod, may be used for ut and agree with the antecedent.

eg legatos ad consulem misit qui pacem peterent
he sent legates to the consul in order to seek peace

Practice sentences:

1. Puer litteras discit ut mox libros legere possit.
2. Imperator nuntios misit ut pacem petant.
3. Dominus servos miserat ut cibum in castra portarent
4. Latro nocte pecuniam eripuit ne quis eum videret.
5. Horatius stabant ut pontem protegeret.
6. Nautae naves parabant ut mare in Africam transirent.
7. Puer et soror eius in silva latebant ne a matre viderentur.
8. Nuntii ad regem missi sunt qui omnia narrarent.
9. Legati ab imperatore emissi sunt qui pecuniam acciperent.
10. Pontem aedificatvit quo facilius flumen transire possimus.

(Latin Sentences Ex 51-52)

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Result Clauses (also known as “Consecutive” Clauses)

a) In Latin, ut (or negative ut non) is used with the Subjunctive to express the Result or consequence of an action. There is usually a marker word like tam, tot, adeo, tantus, ita etc

eg tam sapienter dicit ut omnibus persuadeat
He speaks so wisely that he persuades everybody

tantum saxum erat ut nemo id tollere possit
the stone was so big that no one could lift it

hostes tot erant ut fugerimus
the enemy were so numerous that we fled

b) Note the following table:

  Purpose Result
so that not ne ut non
so that no one ne quis ut nemo
so that nothing ne quid ut nihil
so that none {ne ullus ut nullus
  {ne qui  
so that never ne umquam ut numquam
so that nowhere ne usquam ut nusquam

Practice sentences

1. Leo tam saevus erat ut omnes eum timerent.
2. Silva tam densa est ut nihil videre possimus.
3. Multitudo barbarorum tanta est ut non numerari possint.
4. Tam amoenus erat locus ut nemo abire vellet.
5. Tot libros poeta scripsit ut eos numerare non possim.
6. Tam audax erat miles ut solus urbem ceperit.
7. Tot viatores pervenerunt ut vix satis panis esset.
8. Nonne flumen tam latum est ut nemo transire possit?
9. Sunt animalia tam parva ut nemo oculis ea videre possit.
10. Hoc flumen tam rapidum erat ut transire difficillimum esset.

(Latin Sentences Ex 53)

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Indirect Command

a) Veni! Come! is a Direct Command

Me rogavit ut venirem, He asked me to come, is an Indirect Command.

Thus in Latin ut is used, negative ne with a subjunctive to express an Indirect Command. This construction occurs after such verbs of ordering, asking, advising such as as moneo, I warn, rogo, I ask, impero, I order etc

eg Mihi imperavit ut festinarem. He ordered me to hurry

NB In English, an Indirect Command is most often shown by a plain Infinitive.

b) Only two Latin verbs take the English construction: iubeo, I order, and veto, I order...not, I forbid.
NB iubeo and veto can be translated as "tell" in the sense of "order"

eg

Iussi eos sequi. I ordered them to follow or I told them to follow
vetui eos sequi I ordered them not to follow or I told them not to follow

In identifying Indirect Commands it helps to think back to what the actual words of command spoken might have been. So in the examples above: there would have been a direct command of “Follow!” or “Don’t follow!”

Practice sentences

1. Oro te ut portas aperias.
2. Te manere veto, abire ceteros iubeo.
3. Magister sapiens pueros monet ne opus neglegant.
4. Amicus meus mihi persuasit ut longum iter secum facerem.
5. Puerum monuerunt ut patri pareret.
6. Tribunus senatores has leges iniustas facere vetuit.
7. Eum iussi quam celerrime domum redire
8. Te oro atque rogo ne hoc scelus facias.
9. Oro te ne umquam te hostibus dedas.
10. Consul servo imperavit ne dominum relinqueret.

(Latin Sentences Ex. 47-48)

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Indirect Question

a) Quid dicis? What are you saying? is a Direct Question.

Nescio quid dicas. I do not know what you are saying, is an Indirect Question.

Thus in Latin the Verb of the Indirect Question goes into the Subjunctive and the clause is introduced by interrogative words such as quis, quid, quando, quare, quot etc.

b) Num, if, whether
Utrum ... an (necne), whether/if... or (not)

These are also used to introduce Indirect Questions

eg Nesciebat utrum pervenisses necne
He did not know whether you had arrived or not.

Practice Sentences

1. Scio quot miltes in campo sint.
2. Rogavi senem num arbores in horto haberet.
3. Magister rogavit num puer illud fecisset necne.
4. Dic mihi cur mecum domum redire nolis.
5. Incertum erat num hostes ad summum montem pervenissent.
6. Viatorem roga unde venerit et quo eat.
7. In dubio sum num me puella amet necne.
8. Audivistine quot copias hostes habeant?
9. Si scitis, dic mihi quis ille sit.
10. Nescio quomodo nocte Romam pervenire possim.

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Indirect Statement- also known as Accusative + Infinitive or Reported Speech

a)

Venio I am coming is a Direct Statement.
Dico me venire I say that I am coming is an Indirect Statement


The following table shows how to translate the Infinitive:

present infinitive = is, was, were
perfect infinitve = have, has, had
future infinitive = will, would

eg

putamus puellam venire is coming
we think the girl venisse has come
  venturam esse will come

 

putabamus puellam venire was coming
we thought the girl venisse had come
  venturam esse would come

b) Note the difference between the following examples:

 

dixit se venire he said that he was coming
dixit eum venire he said that he was coming

 

c) Spero, I hope, promitto, I promise, iuro, I swear, minor, I threaten are followed by an Accusative and Future Infinitive

eg

sperabant se venturos esse they hoped to come
promitto me canturum esse I promise to sing

d) nego, I deny, say....not, is used instead of dico..........non

eg negavit se venturum esse he said he would not come

Practice Sentences

1. Romanos in Britannia pugnare dicit.
2. Dux illos montes altos esse dixit.
3. Matrem meum cras domum venturam esse puto.
4. Eius patrem in Africam mare transivisse credo.
5. Pater filium suum multas culpas habere putavit.
6. Meus amicus se libros multos scripturum esse sperat.
7. Puer matrem vivere, patrem mortuum esse dixit.
8. Agricola equum mihi se venditurum esse promisit.
9. Inter omnes constat Hannibalem fuisse ducem fortem.
10. Nos hostes vincere posse puto

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Ablative Absolute

a) In Latin, a Noun or Pronoun in the Abalative case is often used with a Participle in agreement to express the idea of Time, Cause, or Concession. This is known as an Ablative Absolute. The Noun or Pronoun and Partciple have no grammatical connetion with the rest of the sentence.

eg

urbe incensa, Romani intraverunt

When }
After } the city had been burned, the Romans entered
Since }
Although }

b) The Perfect Participle is the partciple most commonly found in this construction, but the Present Participle is used very often to express the idea of Time. The Future Participle rarely occurs in an Ablative Absolute.

eg

Me redeunte, turris incensa est
While I was returning, the tower was burned

c) As the verb to be does not have a Present Participle, it is possible to have an Ablative Absolute consisting of Two Nouns or a Noun and an Adfjective with the Partciple ‘being’ understood.

eg

Numa rege.
literally "Numa being King", or "in the reign of Numa"

Thus:

Caesare duce under the leadership of Caesar
mea matre viva in my mother’s lifetime
me inscio without my knowledge
te auctore at your instigation
adverso flumine upstream
secundo flumine downstream
nobis invitis against our will
Cicerone consule in the consulship of Cicero

Practice Sentences

1. Clamore sublato, hostes omnes ad castra cucurrerunt
2 His factis, puer diu dormire non poterat.
3. Patria relicta, senes redire noluerunt.
4. Caesare duce, milites nihil timebant.
5. Mario et Catulo consulibus, cives erant felices.
6. His dictis, mulier filias suas domum dimisit.
7. Coniurati, imperatore monente, occisi sunt.
8. Caesare proconsule, Gallia tota victa est.
9. Equitibus missis, victoria populo nuntiata est.
10. Acie instructa, proelium statim commissum est.

(Latin Sentences Ex. 38) top