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POTRTAITS
LESSON #4

DRAWING THE EYES, FULL FACE
    You will need a soft pencil, drawing paper, and kneaded eraser for this study - and the mirror, of
course.

1.Start with the sphere of the eye, lightly drawn. (Even though you can't see it, you know it's there.) Draw a second sphere for the other eye, leaving an eye's width between. (see the sketches, left.)
  2.Draw the eyelids curving over the sphere as shown in the second sketch. Notice the lower lid has a different contour from the upper lid. Ans the upper lid casts a shadow upon the eyeball. Without this shadow, the eye will appear to be "popping" - too prominent. Now add the tear duct where the upper and lower eyelids intersect, next to the nose. Most often this cornor is lower than the outer cornor. Draw the fold line in the upper lid, and perhaps add some shadow as shown to indicate the depression next to the bridge of the nose. Is there a fold line under the eye?
  3.Draw the eyebrows. Remember the brow is made up of many small hairs; it's drawn with short strokes, not one continuous line. Lay in any shadows you see unser the brow bone, and under the lower lid. Erase the eyeball circle line.
  4.Put in the round, colored iris. If you open your eyes very wide, you'll see the entire circle; without sketching your eyes open, either the top of the iris will be covered by the upper eyelid or the bottom part of the lower eyelid, or most likely both the top and the bottom by both lids. It's very unusual to see the entire iris. Look carefully for the shiny white highlight, and leave that tiny area of the paper white. Now add the black pupil in the center of the iris. Make this very dark.Study the right eye. Add the eyelashes only where you see them. Check the alignment of the two pupils by laying your pencil horizontally across them, making sure you are holding it straight and not tilted.

FINISHING UP; With one last critical look, chech your work by looking at your drawing in the
mirror. Looking at your artwork in a mirror is a foolproof way to spot errors. In this instance,
you could clearly see if one eye is larger, or lower, or out of kilter in any way. Correct any errors
you find. Add whatever accents you see in the eyes that will bring your drawing to life.

Eyes are great fun to draw. Isn't it exciting and challenging to make them look as if they might
blink, or have them convey mood? As you draw other peoples eyes, try to get the age group right.
For example, glamorous eyes with long sweeping eyelashes would be inappropiate on a child. Can
you show wisdom in the eyes of someone who has lived quite a long time? Some eyes really do
sparkle and dance. Can you portray this effect?
It's safe to say you will never be bored drawing eyes, for everyone's eyes are unique. The variety is
infinite.

DRAWING PROFILE EYES

The only way you can study your own eye in profile is to look at it in a second mirror, such as a hand mirror reflecting your image from a wall mirror. This may seem a little cumbersome, but theinformation gained from this study is well worth it.

  1.Begin with the lightly drawn sphere. Of course you can see only one eye when looking at the eyes in profile, for the other eye is hidden behind the nose, on the other side of the head. Draw the curve of the upper eyelid, then the lower one. You will be unable to see the tearduct pocket.
  2.Add the eyebrow, then the shadow under the brow, if there is one, and the shadow under the lower lid. Study the iris. You will see that it is no longer round from this angle, but is a flattened disc shape, and a part of it will be hidden by the eyelid. The highlight is even smaller in this view; study it carefully and try to leave it the white of the paper when coloring in the iris. If you can't manage this, pick it out with your eraser. Now draw the pupil, which is also a flattened disc shape, very dark. The darker you make the area surrounding the highlight, the brighter the highlight will appear. Put in the eyelashes, which are more prominent in the profile view. Then add the accents.  Finally erase the lines indicating the sphere that are still visible, and there you have it!

DRAWING THE EYES, THREE-QUARTER VIEW
    This view requires even more careful observation than the full face or the profile. Most of the
heads you will paint will be in a three-quarter view as this angle appears most natural and least
posed. Look in a mirror and draw your own eyes, but each time you look, be sure your head is
precisely the position as before. A half-inch turn to the right or left changes the perspective of the
eyes.
1.Draw the two spheres and draw the eyelids over the spheres. Immediately you'll see why this view needs careful observation: the left eye is very different from the right. Coloring the irises should help with the eyelids. Add the fold line in the upper lid with care. Then the tearduct. See how the inner conor of the eye fartherest away from you is partially hidden by the bridge of the nose. You may not even see the tearduct of that eye.
  2.Add the pupils, very black. Leave the highlights the white of the paper. Add the eyelashes where you see them. Draw in the eyebrows. Then look for shadows. Erase the sphere where it is still visible.
    Draw as many pairs of eyes as you can from life, magazines, and photographs, every day for a
month. This effort will be of enormous benifit to you. I believe it is safe to say that the success of
your portraits depends upon your finesse in drawing and painting eyes.
 


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