Ch19 Sec1:
1) How did riches accumulated from a growing trade affect Italian Cities.
2) What factors led to the development of capitalism in Italy?
3) In what ways did the Italian city-states gain from the political wranglings between the Holy Roman
Emperors and the popes?
4) What was the appeal of despots to Italian People?
5) What is the basic advice to rules in Machiavelli's The Prince?

Answers To Questions:
1) Due to the large amount of trading in Itilian cities, the people began to become wealthy and have more
time to enjoy things in life.
2) Money was the prime factor that lead to the development of capitalism in Italy.
3) Each city was allowed to be a self reliant government.
4) Despots would enforce law and order to satisfy the wants of the people.
5) Machiavelli's basic advice was that the state must be stable at all costs.

Ch19 Sec2 Questions: 1) Why might humanism have gained popularity during the Italian Rennassance? 2) How were Petarch and Boccaccio influenced by classical Romans and Greeks? 3) How did the goals of education change during the Renaissance? 4) How is Leonardo da Vinci an example of a Renaissance man? Answers to Questions: 1) Humanists' belief on the possibilites of the human being were easily accepted in the times of the Renaissance when the focus of attention was spread rather than focused on religion. 2) Petarch and Boccaccio were influenced by classical Romans and Greeks lore because they had studied them for their lives. 3) Before the renaissance the people that were educated were only educatd to preach or debate after the renaissance however the goal of education became to make one well rounded and exposed to many aspects of learning. 4) Leonardo da Vinci was a man born into a wealthy class, was educated and was witty.
Ch19 Sec3 Questions: 1) In what ways was Renaissance painting Changed from art in the Middle Ages? 2) How did the scuplture and architecture of the Renaissance reflect the humanist philosophy? 3) What were some of the talents that made Michelangelo an outstanding Reniassance aritst? Answers To Questions: 1) During the Middle Ages a great majority of the painting were focused on religious events. During The time of the Reniassance they switched from religious events and started to paint humans and scences of nature. 2) Italian Renaissance architects used Greek and Roman modles and adapted them to their ever changing needs. Sculptures were done meticuliously with great skill and detail. 3) Michelangelo was talented in everything thing that he done, anywhere from, sculpting, painting and architecture. With his skill spread he had a good knowledge of his fields and accomplished much.
Ch19 Sec4 QuestionS: 1) What were two results of the invention of movable type? 2) What were some of the typical concers of northern European humanists? 3) For what were the painters of the Northern Renaissance Famous? 4) In what ways were Shakespeare and Cervantes major Renaissance writers? Answers To Questions: 1) With the invention of movable type books were easily printed and could be printed faster in larger quantities. 2) The main concers of the northern European humanists were that of religion and ethics. 3) Northern renaissance painters were best known for their flemish (the use of oils) painting 4) Both Shakespeare and Cervantes expressed their humanist beliefs throught their writings.
Ch 20 Sec1 Questions: 1) Describe two improvements in sailing technology that aided exploration. 2) How did Portuguese exploration lead to increased trade from Africa and India? 3) What were the lasting results of Columbus's voyage? 4) How did Spain and Portugal seek to settle disputes about rights to newly discovered lands? Answers To Questions: 1) Two developments in sailing technology were in ship and sail design and the asterolabe. 2) The portuguese two new improvements helped them find their way to Africa and India and back again safely and broke off Italy's monopoly on goods from the East. 3) Columbus's voyage payed the way for Surope's domination of the vast new lands. 4) Representatives from both countries met and drew up the Treaty of Tordesillas. The idea was to have an imaginary line drawn about 700 miles inland and all newly discovered land would go to Portugal east of the line.
Ch 20 Sec2 Questions: 1) List the Portugeuese and Spanish exploreres who liad claim to the Americas and tell what each did. 2) Describe the voyage of Ferdinand Magellan and discuss its significance. 3) In what ways did the expeditions in search of the Northwest passage influence the later history of England and France? Answeres To Questions: 1) Pedro Cabral sailed to the east coast of South America and claimed lands now known as Brazil in the name of Portugal Vasco de Bolboa sailed to the America's and treked all across the mainland to the Pacific Ocean and claimed everything in his path for Spain. 2) The trek of Magellan was the first of its kind. He set out to sail around the world, the importence of his journey because it was Europe's first hint of the wide expanse of the Pacific Ocean. 3) Although the expiditions set out in search of the Northwest passage did not succed it lead to the beginning of English Domination of the seas.
Ch 20 Sec3: Questions: 1) How did Portugal establish its empire? 2) Why was Spain more successful than Portugal in Holding on to its colonies? 3) What made the English settlers in North America good colonits? 4) Why did France's colonies in North America fail to develop? 5) How did the Dutch trading colonies in the East and the West Fare? Answers To Questions: 1) Portugal's empire was based on establishing and maintaing trading posts in startegic locations through out the world. 2) Spain unlike Portugal had a much larger population and was able to establish more secure colonies. 3) English settler's spirit and determination made them good colonists. 4) The French did not allow religious minorities to settle in their colonies. The people in France had little incentive to leave their homes to occupy the cold northern regions. 5) Dutch trading colonies took over the spice trade of the Portuguese eventually and held out till the 18th century until it ended.
Ch 20 Sec4: Questions: 1) What were some of the goods exchanged between Europe and its colonies? 2) Tell how the increased money supply led to the Commercial Revolutionin Europe. Describe some of the new industries and the new ways of producing goods that occured. 3) What was the main goal of mercantilism? How did colonies contribute to this goal? 4) State the cause of inflation in Europe between 1550 and 1650. Decribe some of its effects. 5) How did world ecology change as a result of the Age Of Exploration? Answers To Questions: 1) Some of the goods being imported and exported from the colonies were spieces, gems, paper, ivory, peorcelian, textiles and coffee. 2) The Commercial Revolution resulted from an increase in Europes's money suplly. It led to new business's and practices of producings goods. 3) The main goal of mercantilism was to export more than a country would import. Governments were set up to promote mercantilism to keep the community unified and well balanced. 4) The inflation that occured was the influx of gold and silver from the New World. Many people were affected by the inflation, some for better some for worse. The poorer class becamse poorer and the middle class became wealthier. 5) Due to the Age of Exploration it brought a change in ecology and in the distribution of living things.
Ch 21 Sec1: Questions: 1) What political issues did the Church become involed in? 2) What forces challenged Church power in the 15th Century? Answers To Questions: 1) The church became invloed in policital affairs of nations, some popes even saw themselves as having more power than the king. 2) The wealthier classes of cities began to oppose the church on serveral grounds. The merchants had began to become more interested in material possessions than spiritual concerns. They also looked down upon indulgences which the church adopted as a way to gain money to heighten their own power.
Ch 21 Sec2: Questions: 1) What idea of Martin Luther led to the Reformation? 2) Describe the main beliefs of Calvinism. 3) What distinguished the Anabaptists from other Protestants? 4) Why did England break with Rome? 5) What were some of the religious and secular effects of the Reformation? Answers To Questions: 1) Luthers idea of the principles of salvation began the reformation. 2) Calvin's beliefs where that God had already decided who was to be saved and who was to be damned, that a person could do nothing to change his fate. 3) Anabaptists believed that only adults were capable of faith and could be baptised that children could not share these same benifits. 4) King Henry VIII broke off with rome shortly after his Act Of Supremacy had been issued. It all began over the issue of him trying to divorice his wife due to the fact that she yieled a female and not a male needed as the heir to the throne. The christain church would not allow Henry to do so, so he went off and founded his own church and was the ruler of it. 5) The reformation encouraged education.
Ch 21 Sec3: Questions: 1) How did Spanish power threaten Europe? 2) How did England defeat Spain? 3) What caused the civil war in the 16th-century France? 4) How was the Thirty Years' War a religious struggle as well as a politcal one? Answers To Questions: 1) THe Hapsburg family was in supreme power during this time period and controlled the strongest military power in Europe. Their armies dominated Europes and protected their navy from shipping. 2) Englands navy was smaller, faster and expertly sailed by skilled captains. They ultimately killed off most of the Spanish Armada and the rest was drove out to the North by storms. 3) The civil war was a direct result over the Huguenots and Roman Catholics. 4) The Thirty Years' war was a religious struggle over protestant and catholic nations.
Ch21 Sec4: Questions: 1) How did the cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin make France Strong? 2) What made Louis XIV one of the most powerful French Kings? WHat weakened him? 3) How did Louis XIV's wars weaken France? Answers To Questions: 1) Richelieu had his three goals on which to make France strong by. First, was to strenghten the power of the French King within France. Second, tp make France supreme in Europe. Last he promised to make Louis XIII famous throughout the world. 2) Louis XIV was a French King that was an absolute ruler with unlimited power. 3) The wars Louis XIV had with France left France with an empty treasury and a large debt.
Ch21 Sec5: Questions: 1) How did the Hapsburgs' absolutist state in central Europe differ from that of France? 2) How did Frederick William raise Prussia to power? 3) What problems were left after the Time Of Troubles? 4) Why did Peter the Great try to westernize Russia? 5) At what cost were Russian Borders extended? Answers to Questions: 1) The hapsburgs lands were rich enough to support a central monarchy to oversee the area, and to build a large army. 2) Williams had built a large enough army to protect a small state. William's decendants built their state into a major power afterwards. 3) After the Time of Troubles had ended Russia was still in need of a male heir to fill the throne. 4) Peter the great tried to westernize the union because he felt that he need the advanced technology of the European countries. 5) At the cost of Sweden loosing nearly all their land Peter was able to expand the russian borders.