Chapter 26 Section 1 Questions: 1) How did the philosophes view human nature? How did the scientific revolution influence that view? 2) Which ideas of Locke and Montesquieu influenced government? 3) Breifly describe the contributions of Voltaire, Rousseau, and Diderot. 4) Name two reforms that improved human well-being during the Enlightenment. 5) How were the arts affected by Enlightenment? Answers: 1) The philosophes viewed human nature the same way they saw the laws of science. They believed that humans could follow a set of governed rules like things in nature. 2) Montesquieu and Locke both influenced the beliefes of checks and balances, the balance of powers that no branch of government could have more power than the other. 3) Like Voltaire, Rousseau and Diderot did not approve of the ways of the current government and often criticized them, then giving their own beliefs on what they percieved a good government. 4) Educational and Religous reforms took place during the Enlightenment. 5) Artists had taken a more broad scope of things and had turned away from religous focused paintings. Chapter 26 Section 2 Questions: 1) What serious conflicts did James 1 and Charles 1 have with their subjects? 2) Give an example of growing parliamentary power in England. 3) How did the Glorious Revolution show Parliament's strength? 4) How did cabinet government develop? Answers: 1) Both James 1 and Charles 1 strongly believed in divine right and wanted to destroy parliament and rule unchallenged. 2) Parliament had conspired against James 2 and had him exiled showing the growing power of parliament. 3) It showed that the people would not stand for an unjust ruler and would take the nesscessary steps to overthrow him. 4) When George 1 first took rule he spoke only German and relied on the whigs to help him rule and this lead to cabinet development. Chapter 26 Section 3 Questions: 1) How did England try to control the colonies? 2) How did the colonists resist English control? 3) What idea fueled the colonists' fight for independence? 4) What was the new U.S. government like? Answers: 1) England tried to impose laws that would limit the colonists only to produce trade with the mother land and no other countries. 2) The colonist resisted these new taxes by boycotting the taxed products, in turn they went to the Boston harbor and threw a large shipment of tea into the sea. 3) Once the Intolerable Acts were passed by Parliament, the colonists saw no other way of resolution other than a revolution. 4) The new American republic planed the seeds of democratic government that would soon sprout all around the world. Chapter 27 Section 1 Questions: 1) How did the inequalities in the estate system breed discontent? 2) How did the unfairness of taxes cause France financial problems? 3) How did the meeting of the Estates-General lead to revolutionary changes in France? Answers: 1) The third estate became very angry how they made up a majority of the population but only got 1 vote among the three estates. 2) The burden of taxation all fell upon the third estate which could barely afford the taxes prior to the increase. 3) The Estates-General had ruled with the majority of the estate and decided to dethrone the king. Chapter 27 Section 2 Questions: 1) How was Napoleon able to rise to power? 2) What reforms did Napoleon make as ruler of France? 3) How did Napoleon aim to destroy the British? 4) What were some positive effects of Napoleon's rule in Europe? Answers: 1) Napoleon rose to power through his military career. 2) Napoleon made many reforms as a ruler his most important of all was the Code Napolean. 3) Napoleon had desired to invade Britian through the sea, but was fought off by Britian's navy. 4) Napoleon had reformed taxes and had allowed no privilges to any one class. Chapter 27 Section 3 Questions: 1) What were the major causes of the Latin American revolutions? 2) What problem did the newly independeny governments face? 3) What group of people led Mexico in its fight for independence? Answers: 1) The major causes that lead to the Latin American revolutions were the enforcement of the Monroe Doctrine and the failure of governments in South America. 2) New govenments had been established but they were not stabe and often collapsed. 3) The first leaders of the independence movement were poor priests whoe lead Idians and mestizo's. Chapter 27 Section 4 Questions: 1) What were some of the political terms that originated during the age of revoluions? 2) How did American and French revolutions give rise to modern nationalism? 3) Explain how the revolutions advanced the causes of Individual rights and representative governments. Answers: 1) Two political terms that originated during the age of revolutions was the Right and the Left. 2) The creation of the United States strengthed the idea that each people had a right to be an independent nation. 3) The revolutions advanced the causes of individual rights by having it writen down and enforced so that all could see.