"Out of nothing I have created a strange new universe."
Janos Bolyai, on the creation of a non-Euclidean geometry
Branch of mathematics
concerned with the properties of and relationships between
points, lines, planes, and figures
and with generalizations of these concepts.
In 1637, René Descartes showed how numbers can be used to describe points in a plane or in space and to express geometric relations in algebraic form, thus founding analytic geometry, of which algebraic geometry is a further development. The problem of representing three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional surface was solved by Gaspard Monge, who invented descriptive geometry for this purpose in the late 18th cent. differential geometry, in which the concepts of the calculus are applied to curves, surfaces, and other geometrical objects, was founded by Monge and C. F. Gauss in the late 18th and early 19th cent. The modern period in geometry begins with the formulations of projective geometry by J. V. Poncelet (1822) and of non-Euclidean geometry by N. I. Lobachevsky (1826) and János Bolyai (1832). Another type of non-Euclidean geometry was discovered by Georg Riemann (1854), who also showed how the various geometries could be generalized to any number of dimensions.
Introduction to Geometry
An Introduction to Projective Geometry (for computer vision)
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