PART II: 1880-1900
A shaky peace remains between Union and Confederate governments until July 17, 1880. US troops based in Tombstone, Arizona Territory, are provoked by CS troops in Cananea, Sonora, and fire on the Confederate soldiers, starting the Second Civil War.
A week later, CS heavy guns and men take Kentucky, save for a single town--General Orlando Willcox's forces hold Louisville, and are all that prevent total domination. Brevet General George Custer begins a buildup of US artillery in Kansas.
Mormon settlements throughout Utah Territory show signs of uprising. General John Pope is ordered to Salt Lake City to hold the peace. He also establishes garrisons throughout the territory to supplement his main base near the Great Salt Lake.
In August, US artillery and troops are moved to fortify the Colorado-New Mexico border. On August 10, the Army of Pennsylvania and the Ohio Artillery invade western Virginia. On August 17, the Army of the Arkansas invades Missouri. CS forces under General Thomas Jackson appear to counter the artillery incursion into Virginia. Jeb Stuart is likewise ordered to defend New Mexico Territory.
The battle in Kentucky reaches a stalemate on September 20, 1880.
On the 27th, Jackson achieves a breakthrough, taking the offensive and driving a wedge between the US armies. Stuart successfully defends New Mexico from an attack, but a separated military unit enters CS territory unseen.
On October 8, Stuart's forces are surprised as the US presses the attack on his men, and Sergeant Theodore Roosevelt arrives with his "lost" cavalry unit. At this time, Jackson's forces reach Cincinnati in Ohio, and he changes his focus to Pennsylvania.
In late October, Ward and John Pershing plot to desert their army group and sneak into the United States. When the time comes, however, John changes his mind, and remains in the Confederate artillery, watching his brother run to the US, where he immediately enlists with the army.
Willcox retakes Kentucky in a surprise maneuver, preparing for a driver further, into Tennessee. On November 4, Stuart orders a retreat into central New Mexico. He stages a strong defense near Chaco Canyon, as Roosevelt campaigns throughout southern New Mexico, striking briefly at El Paso. Custer arrives in New Mexico with his new Gatling guns, intent on stopping Stuart.
In November 1880, English troops attack Maine and Seattle, Washington Territory; the French begin mobilizing in Mexico.
On December 8, Custer and Stuart clash near Chaco Canyon. Stuart retreats to Albequerque. Furious over his near-victory, Custer orders Roosevelt back to the front. After another brief attack on El Paso, Roosevelt begins the return journey.
Willcox begins the invasion of Tennessee late in December of 1880. Jackson's forces leave Pennsylvania and begin driving through southern Ohio; his plan is to circle behind Willcox and cut him off.
In January of 1881, Stuart grounds his men in Albuquerque and prepares for an assault. With half of Missouri occupied, the Army of the Arkansas pauses and fortifies their new territory. On January 19, Willcox reaches the outskirts of Knoxville and prepares to take the town, unaware of Jackson's army behind him.
By early February, Custer and Roosevelt are prepared to assault Stuart's position in Albuquerque. The Army of the Arkansas moves out from St. Louis, due east along the 38th parallel and making their way toward Kansas. On the 15th, Willcox executes a full-scale assault of Knoxville. A detachment of Jackson's army attacks Louisville. On February 17, General Pope leaves Utah Territory for the Montana-Canada border.
On March 8, Stuart defeats Custer and Roosevelt and immediately begins to drive for Arizona Territory once again.
Knoxville falls to the Union on March 17. Willcox hastily garrisons Tennessee, and heads back north, still unknowing of Jackson in Kentucky. Louisville falls to Jackson's guns three days later; he continues south, not aware that Willcox has reversed direction.
Stuart reaches Arizona Territory on April 11, 1881. He immediately begins to extend his supply line through Cananea and establishes a defensive garrison in the middle of the Arizona desert, digging trenches and building battlements by creating strong clay walls with the help of local Indians. Roosevelt and Custer make for Tombstone.
On April 28, 1881, the largest battle of the war is fought. In the early dawn hours, along the Kentucky-Tennessee border, Willcox and Jackson literally run into each other. By day's end, over a thousand are already dead, and neither commander yet has decided on a strategy.
Pope arrives in Fort Benton, Montana Territory, two days later, and begins building up forces there.
By May 9, the "Great Battle" rages on. No true gains or losses are reported by either side.
The Mormons see their chance. On May 15, all communications and rail lines to Utah Territory are cut. No word is ever heard from Pope's garrisons left behind. The last stand, in Salt Lake City, is staged on May 18, and is quelled within hours.
Custer and Roosevelt reach Tombstone and resupply on May 23. By now, Stuart's position in Arizona Territory has become something of a small town. Roosevelt quickly moves on toward Cananea, while Custer plans to strike at Stuart.
On June 1, 1881, Utah Territory formally declares its independence from the United States; it is now knows as the Mormon Nation of Deseret.
On June 29, Jackson achieves a breakthrough, forcing Willcox to retreat and recapturing Tennessee in one fell swoop.
Roosevelt attacks Cananea but it repelled by a strong CS defense. By mid-July the Mormon uprising has spread to Nevada and all but the southern tip of the state revolts and secedes from the US. Pope's forces in Montana Territory meet the British in combat late in July.
Royal Navy forces make landfall in Maryland, Delaware and Massachusetts in early August. New York and Boston come under British bombardment. French ships launch from Guaymas with orders to lay siege to San Francisco and Seattle.
Northern Nevada officially joins Deseret on August 18, 1881.
In early September French Royal Marines land in Seattle, bolstering the British offensive. The British move their infantry and artillery from the territory to further harass Pope in Montana and Idaho Territories.
In mid-September, the Great Battle turns, as Jackson manages to split Willcox's army in two, dividing their power.
In October 1881, the combined French-British assault forces Pope further into southern Montana, as Royal troops capture Maine. Stuart barely holds off an attack by Custer, while Roosevelt again attempts to break the supply line from Cananea.
In November, British troops make their way through New Hampshire, Vermont and Massachusetts. In the midst of his battle, Jackson deploys a detachment to travel through southern Indiana. Tiring of his assault, Custer backs off, giving Stuart to chance to build up his defense into a small base and dooming further attempts at conquest.
On December 7, Custer receives orders to relocate his Gatling guns to Montana Territory; on the 12th, Roosevelt receives orders to bring his cavalry to Colorado and defend the capitol. On the 20th, Jackson initiates a cursory attack on Springfield, Illinois, as he pushes Willcox's army back, into Indiana.
On January 5, 1882, the British break through the lines and take much of Idaho and Montana Territories, and pushing Pope's forward command base to Helena, all just before Custer arrives with his Gatling cannons in tow.
As of January 13, the British occupy Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire and Massachusetts, and begin assaulting Rhode Island, Connecticut and New York.
Roosevelt arrives in Colorado Springs weeks ahead of Stuart and begins to hastily organize the defenses. Soon infuriated by the sluggish work being done with the military, Roosevelt constantly short-circuits the chain of command to get his way.
Stuart's forces assault Colorado on February 2. Amidst heroics by Roosevelt and his men, the capitol falls to Stuart on February 10, 1882. With the Gatlings under his command, Pope drives the British almost entirely out of Montana Territory in a matter of weeks. On February 25, Willcox surrenders to Jackson in southern Indiana.
On March 1, 1882, the US surrenders to the Confederates. By the Treaty of Vandalia, the CSA gains Arizona Territory and Kentucky, and the territory taken by the Army of the Arkansas (known as Arkansas Territory) is annexed into the Confederacy. The northern half of Maine, to the old treaty line, is permanently occupied by the British and attached to Canada. Again, uprising occur throughout Virginia, and another vote is held. This time, the western region of the state breaks away peacefully. Smaller uprisings are seen in southern California, but no vote is held.
French naval forces return to Mexico in June of 1882. The US is forced to recognize the Mormon Nation of Deseret, its capitol as Salt Lake City.
On July 8, the CSA incorporates Arizona Territory into New Mexico. Jeb Stuart's defensive base has now become a small town, and on July 9, the city of Stuart, New Mexico, is founded.
After much debate in Congress, it is decided to absorb the remaining sliver of Nevada into California; Nevada ceases to exist on July 14. The state of Potomac, north and west of Virginia, is admitted into the Union on July 29.
The Latin American Confederation, formed in 1821 when Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, Costa Rica and Nicaragua revolted against Spanish rule, holds an election to join the Empire of Mexico in 1886. The vote is unanimous; the nations are annexed into Mexico as provinces.
On March 14, 1890, Indian Territory is admitted to the Confederacy as the state of Oklahoma. Arkansas Territory applies for statehood later that year, but is rejected because most of its population is military. The Territory's statehood remains in debate for some time, and many names are considered: Sequoyia, New Kansas, New Arkansas, and North Arkansas are just a few of the titles invented.
Montana Territory enters the Union on January 4, 1891. Idaho follows suit on July 15, 1892.
On August 8, 1894, the flagship CSS Atlanta enters Santiago Harbor in Cuba after a routine patrol of the Gulf of Mexico.
The powder-keg situation in Hawaii ignites in January of 1895 when anti-Confederate conspirators overthrow the Hawaiian monarchy. Immediately, the CSA puts its support behind the Queen and arms the Hawaiian resistance. After a month of guerilla battles in the jungles of Hawaii, US and CS vessels mobilize for the Pacific, intent on resolving the struggle. In mid-February, Monarchist-Confederate resistance is gunned down in Pearl City, the provisional capitol. Shortly later, the resistance overpowers the martial US government and Sanford Dole is installed as the Provisional President of the Republic of Hawaii.
In April of 1895, US vessels appear en masse to blockade Hawaii's ports. The US issues a final warning to the CSA, demanding the removal of Confederate presence from Hawaii. Instead, Confederate land forces open fire, sinking the USS Providence in Pearl Harbor.
On May 5, 1895, the Confederate President asks Congress for a declaration of war against the US. Two days later, the CSS Atlanta sinks in Santiago Harbor; it is unknown if the ship suffered a torpedo or mine or if her own munitions exploded. The declaration against the US is quickly forgotten as the CSA mobilizes its navy. On June 3, the CSA declares war on Spain and makes for Cuba. Days later, the fleet blockades all Cuban harbors and begins landing troops near San Juan, beginning the Spanish-Confederate War.
The US government condemns the CSA for its actions on the Cuban front, as the Spanish fleet sails for Cuba.
In early July, the Confederate Central Pacific fleet sails from Guaymas, headed to the Philippines. CS forces are also diverted from Hawaii to assist the Central Pacific fleet. With Confederate military forces weakened, US forces take Hawaii by force; Sanford Dole is executed by the US commander, Captain Theodore Roosevelt.
In the morning of August 8, a Spanish fleet attempting to enter Santiago harbor is intercepted and destroyed. In the Battle of Manila, the CS fleet destroys all Spanish opposition in the Philippines. After the Battles of San Juan Hill, Santiago and Rio Zaza, Spanish commander Ramon Blanco surrenders Cuba to the Confederacy.
On September 10, 1895, Spain surrenders, and the Spanish-Confederate War ends. The Philippines are annexed into the CSA as Manila Territory, as well as Cuba, now Cuba Territory.
In December of 1895, British-Chinese relations deteriorate, with Britain continuing to ship opium through Hong Kong against China's repeated requests not to do so. On the advice of the Confederate Ambassador to the UK, Britain decides to stop shipping though the harbor, narrowly averting war. In an act of good faith, China cedes Hong Kong Island to the UK, and Formosa to the Confederacy, in perpetuity. It is annexed as Formosa Territory.
On September 24, 1896, Washington Territory is admitted into the Union.
A multinational conference is held in late 1896, through mid-1897, in Amsterdam. As a result, the CSA, United Kingdom, France and Russia agree to and sign the Central Pact, forming the Central Powers. A small clause in the Pact ties the Confederacy very closely economically and politically to Britain and France for the next 50 years; in exchange, Britain agrees to provide the CSA with "limited monetary resources." This clause remains clouded in mystery to those outside the Central Powers.
In January of 1898, the USA, Spain, and Germany respond with the Allied Pact, forming the Allied Powers. Mexico attends both conferences. They do not sign on to either pact, however, as they prefer neutrality, and they are facing Pancho Villa and possible civil war in the near future. Deseret considers signing one of the pacts, but in the end, declares absolute neutrality toward all nations in the event of conflict. Several large factories are immediately constructed in Deseret for the express purpose of creating weapons and armor, to be sold to both North and South, in such an event.
On February 16, 1898, Wyoming is admitted into the Union.
LAST PAGE (1851-1879) HOME NEXT PAGE (1900-1926)