Meaning of Nafs
By M. Afifi al-Akiti
“As for whoever exceeded the limits and preferred the
life of this world, surely his abode will be the Fire; and as for whoever feared
to stand before his Lord and restrained the desires of his self, surely his
abode will be the Garden.” (79:39-40)
Ibn Kathîr says:
“The Mu’minîn are a people who have been
prevented through the Qur’ân from indulging in the pleasures of this world;
it comes between them and what might destroy them. The Mu’min is like a
prisoner in this world, who tries to free himself from its shackles and chains,
placing his trust in nothing in it, until the day he meets his Creator. He knows
full well that he is accountable for everything that he hears, sees and says,
and for everything that he does with his body.” (Al-Bidâyah wa al-Nihâyah, vol. 9 pg. 276, Cairo
There are 2 kinds of people, one are those whose Nafs
have overcome them and led them to ruin because they yielded to them and obeyed
their impulses. The other kinds are those who have overcome their Nafs
and made them obey their commands.
Nafs (pl. Anfus or Nufűs) lexically
means soul, the psyche, the ego, self, life, person, heart or mind. (Mu’jam,
Although some scholars have classified the Nafs up to 7 stages, there is agreement among ‘Ulamâ’ that in the Qur’ân, Allâh (s.w.t.) has described at least 3 main types of the Nafs. And these are in rank from the worse to better: Nafs al-Ammârah Bissu’ (the Nafs that urges evil), Nafs al-Lawwâmah (the Nafs that Blames) and Nafs al-Mutma’innah (the Nafs at Peace).
(Chapter 12 v. 53 in the Tafsîr of al-Tabari: Jami‘
al-Bayân fî Tafsîr al-Qur’ân, 30 vols., Bulaq 1323 & also
in Imâm Baghawi’s Tafsîr: Lubab al-Tâ’wil fî Ma‘âlam at-Tanzîl,
8 vols. Cairo, 1308)
A summary of these states of the Nafs are given by Imam Tabarî in his Tafsîr of Sűrah Yűsuf verse 53:
(The Soul which Commands Evil):
This is the Nafs that brings punishment itself. By its very nature it directs its owner towards every wrong action. No one can get rid of its evil without the help from Allâh. As Allâh refers to this Nafs in the story of the wife of al-Azîz (Zulaikhah) and Prophet Yűsuf (as):
“The (human) soul is certainly prone to evil” (12:53).
Allâh also says:
“And had it not been for the grace of Allâh and His Mercy on you, not one of you would ever have been pure; but Allâh purifies whomever He wishes, and Allâh is Hearing, Knowing.” (24:21)
This Nafs resides in the world of the senses and is dominated by earthly desires (Shahawât) and passions….
Evil lies hidden in the Nafs and it is this that leads it on to do wrong. If Allâh were to leave the servant alone with his self, the servant would be destroyed between its evil and the evil that it craves; but if Allâh grants him success and help, then he will survive. We seek refuge in Allâh the Almighty, both from the evil in ourselves and from the evil of our actions.
2. Nafs al-Lawwâma (the Soul that Blames):
Allâh refers to this Nafs,
“And I do call to witness the Nafs that blames” (75:2).
This Nafs is conscious of its own imperfections.
Hasan al-Basrî said, “You always see the believer blaming himself and saying things like ‘Did I want this? Why did I do that? Was this better than that?’ ”….
3. Nafs al-Mutma’inna (the Soul at Peace):
Allâh refers to this Nafs,
“O Self, in complete rest and satisfaction!” (89:27).
This Nafs is tranquil as it rests on the certitude of Allah.
Ibn Abbas (r) said, “It is the tranquil and believing soul”.
Al-Qatâdah (r) said, “It is the soul of the believer,
made calm by what Allâh has promised. Its owner is at rest and content with his
knowledge of Allâh’s Names and Attributes, and with what He has said about
Himself and His Messenger ,
and with what He has said about what awaits the soul after death: about the
departure of the soul, the life in the Barzakh, and the events of the Day
of Qiyâmah which will follow. So much so that a believer such as this can
almost see them with his own eyes. So he submits to the will of Allah and
surrenders to Him contentedly, never dissatisfied or complaining, and with his
faith never wavering. He does not rejoice at his gains, nor do his afflictions
make him despair - for he knows that they were decreed long before they happened
to him, even before he was created….”…. (Al-Tabarî: Jami‘ al-Bayân fî Tafsîr al-Qur’ân,
vol. 13, Bulaq 1323)
Imâm Baghawi says,
“The Nafs al-Mutma’innah has an angel to help
it, who assists and guides it. The angel casts good into the Nafs so that
it desires what is good and is aware of the excellence of good actions. The
angel also keeps the self away from wrong action and shows it the ugliness of
bad deeds. All in all, whatever is for Allah and by him, always comes from the
Soul which is at Peace.
The Nafs al-Ammarah Bissu’ has Shaytân as its ally. He promises it great rewards and gains, but casts falsehood into it. He invites it and entices the soul to do evil. He leads it on with hope after hope and presents falsehood to the soul in a form that it will accept and admire.”
Ibn al-Qayyim also mentioned the states of Nafs:
“The Nafs is a single entity, although its state may change: from the Nafs al-Ammârah, to the Nafs al-Lawwâmah, to the Nafs al-Mutma’innah, which is the final aim of perfection….
It has been said that the Nafs al-Lawwâmah is the one, which cannot rest in any one state. It often changes, remembers and forgets, submits and evades, loves and hates, rejoices and become sad, accepts and rejects, obeys and rebels.
Nafs al-Lawwâmah is also the Nafs of the
believer….It has also been mentioned that the Nafs blames itself on the
Day of Qiyâmah - for every one blames himself for his actions, either his bad
deeds, if he was one who had many wrong actions, or for his shortcomings, if he
was one who did good deeds. All of this is accurate. (Madârij as-Sâlikîn fî Manâzili Iyyâka Na‘budu wa
Iyyâka Nasta‘în, vol. 1 pg. 308)
Sa‘îd Hawwa says regarding these Nafs:
“Depending upon its condition, the Nafs exist in
multidimensional. When the Nafs is tranquil because of obeying Allâh,
and the soul opposes its desires, this soul is known as Nafs al-Mutma’innah.
Regarding this, Allâh has spoken about it in the Qur’ân (89:27-28). But if
the soul does not attain peace with itself, rather being exposed to desires,
then such soul is known as the Nafs al-Lawwâmah because this soul
reproaches its owner due to the owner’s carelessness in fulfilling out Allah’s
wishes - Qur’ân (75:2). More so, if the soul submits to lusts and allows
itself to be seduced by Shaytân, such a soul is known as Nafs al-Mutma’innah.
Allâh tells the story about the wife of al-Azîz (Zulaikha) in Qur’ân
(12:53). (Tarbiyatun nar Rűhîyah, pg. 32, Cairo: Dar al-
There is a famous Arabic saying:
Watch out! Help me with your striving,
in the darkness of the nights;
so that on the Day of Qiyâmah,
you will win a good life on those heights.”
May this be of benefit.
And the last of our prayers,
“Glory to your Lord, the Lord of Honour & Power! He is better from what they ascribe to Him! Peace be upon the Messengers! Praise be to Allâh, the Lord of the worlds.” (37:180-182)
M. Afifi al-Akiti.
Belfast, 4 May 1997.