The continent of Antarctica is located almost entirely inside the Antarctic Circle and has a permanent layer of ice. Beneath this icy layer there is a great amount of minerals, such as oil, iron and coal. In some areas, the thickness of the layer of ice can reach 3,700 meters. As a consequence, Antarctica is the continent with the highest mean elevation.
Antarctica has a scanty flora, but a rich fauna, including many species of fish, birds and mammals.