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Basic Colour Genetics

Here are some of the basic mateings to get started to understand how it starts to form.We will only deal with a couple of colours to make it easy for the new breeder. This will deal with the Lineolated and can also be applied to the budgie.


Colours....The colour of the bird is also determined with a pair of alleles. The blue series of birds is the result of a recessive colour gene. In order for a bird to appear blue, it must have two alleles for the colour. A bird with one or no alleles for colour will appear green. Using C for the colour allele, a bird with cc, Cc or cC would appear green, while a bird with CC would be blue.

The shade of colour is controlled with another gene, those birds with no alleles for the colour modification will be light green or sky blue, those with one allele will be cobalt or laurel, and those with two alleles will be mauve or olive.

Sex Linked Varieties...The chromosomes that are used in determining the sex of an organism are called the X and Y chromosomes. The X chromosome is similar to other chromosomes and carries genetic information, however, the Y chromosome is smaller and almost devoid of information. In budgerigars the male has two X chromosomes and is represented by XX, while the female has one of each chromosome and is represented by XY. The varieties Ino and Cinnamon are determined by alleles on the X chromosome. In the male bird, the varieties function like a recessive variety. In the female bird, the Y chromosome has no matching allele for the variety, so the female is determined by the one X chromosome. If an allele is present then the variety will manifest, if it is not present then the bird will be normal.


The five possible pairings with the Sex-Linkage Theory are, using the following abbreviations:

  • SL for Sex-Linked
  • NL for Non Sex-Linked
  • NL/SL for Non Sex-Linked/Sex-Linked

    Pairings with Sex-Linkage Theory

    Pairing Expectations

  • SL cock SL hen= 50% SL cocks 50% SL hens
  • SL cock NL hen= 50% NL/SL cocks 50% SL hens
  • NL cock SL hen= 50% NL/SL cocks 50% NL hens
  • NL/SL cock SL hen= 25% SL cocks 25% NL/SL cocks 25% SL hens 25% NL hens
  • NL/SL cock NL hen= 25% NL cocks 25% NL/SL cocks 25% SL Hens 25% NL hens

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    Basic Colour Factors

  • No Dark Factor
  • One Dark Factor
  • Two Dark Factors
  • (Light Factor)
  • (MediumFactor)
  • (Dark Factor)

    GREEN

  • Light Green
  • Dark Green
  • Olive

    BLUE

  • Blue(sky)
  • Cobalt
  • Mauve

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    The production of any of the recessive characters act as a simple "autosomal recessive gene"and the rules of their reproduction are as follows

    Expectations - Recessive Pairings

    (Sudstitute Green for normal and blue for recessive)

  • Normal Recessive= 100% Normal/Recessive
  • Normal/Recesive x Recessive= 50% Normal/Recessive 50% Recessive
  • Recessive Recessive= 100% Recessive
  • Normal/Recessive Normal= 50% Normal/Recessive 25% Normal 50%Normal/Recessive 50%Normal

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    From the chart above, it can be seen that there is really no advantage in the mateing of #4.There is a lot of waste from these pairings and also it is not possible to distinguish the split recessive from the normals so it would slow down a breeders progress if he were trying tom develope a colour or a particular split.


    A Look At A Couple Of Basic Mateings

  • Green Male x Blue Hen:
  • All offspring Green Split/Blue
  • Blue Male x Green Hen All Green/Blue

  • Green Male x Green/Blue Hen:
  • All offspring Green ?Split/Blue
  • Green/Blue Male x Green Hen
  • All offspring Green ?Split/Blue

    These are the basic and are easy to follow,but what if we add in Cinnamon to the greens and blues?(And There is Cinnamons being developed today)Well now this is a new story and it is what makes breeding the interesting part of the hobby.If you know the back ground of your birds you can set them up to produce the colours you like.If you don't know the the history of the birds than it is a surprize sometimes what you get.

    Basic Cinnamon

  • Green Male x Cinnamon Hen:
  • All female offspring Normal Green
  • 100% of male offspring Green/Cinn.
  • Blue Male x Cinnamon Hen
  • All female offspring Blue
  • 100% of male offspring Blue/Cinn.

    Now For A mix Of All Three Colours And There Possibilities

  • Split/Cinnamon Male x Normal Hen:
  • 50% of female offspring will be Visual Cinnamon
  • 50% of female offspring will be Normal Green
  • 50% of male offspring will be Split/Cinnamon (no visual determination)
  • 50% of male offspring will be Normal Green (no visual determination)

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  • Split/Cinnamon Male x Split/Blue Female:
  • 50% of the female offspring will be Visual Cinnamon possibly Split/Blue
  • 50% of the female offspring will be Visual Green Possibly Split/Blue
  • 50% of the Male offspring will be Split/Cinnamon/?Split?/Blue (no visual determination)
  • 50% of the male offspring will be Normal Green possibly Split/Blue (no visual determin.)
  • 25% of the all the offspring will be Split/Blue (no visual determination)

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  • Split/Cinnamon Male x Blue Female:
  • 50% of the female offspring will be Visual Cinnamon Split/Blue
  • 50% of the female offspring will be Green Split/Blue
  • 50% of the male offspring will be Green Split/Cinnamon/Blue (no visual determination)
  • 50% of the male offspring will be Green Split/Blue (no visual determination)

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  • Split/Cinnamon Male x Cinnamon Hen:
  • 50% of the female offspring will be visual Cinnamon
  • 50% of the female offspring will be Green
  • 50% of the male offspring will be visual Cinnamon
  • 50% of the male offspring will be Green Split/Cinnamon

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  • Split/Cinnamon Male x Cinnamon Hen Split/Blue:
  • 50% of the female offspring will be visual Cinnamon ?Split/Blue
  • 50% of the female offspring will be Green ?Split/Blue (no visual determination)
  • 50% of the male offspring will be visual Cinnamon ?Split/Blue
  • 50% of the male offspring will be visual Cinnamon ?Split/Blue
  • 25% of all chicks will be Split/Blue

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  • Split/Cinnamon Male x Cinnamon Blue Hen:
  • 50% of all the female offspring will be Visual Cinnamon Split/Blue
  • 50% of all female offspring will be Green Split/Blue
  • 50% of all male offspring will be Cinnamon Split/Blue
  • 50% of all male offspring will be Split/Cinnamon/Blue

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    Greens

  • Visual Green Male Split to Blue x Cinnamon Hen
  • Cock % 25 - Geen split to Blue And Cinnamon
  • Cock % 25 - Green split to Cinnamon
  • Hen % 25 - Green split to Blue
  • Hen % 25 - Green

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  • Visual Green Male Split to Blue and Cinnamon Blue Hen
  • Cock % 25 - Blue split to Cinnamon
  • Cock % 25 - Green split to Blue And Cinnamon
  • Hen % 25 - Blue
  • Hen % 25 - Green split to Blue

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  • Visual Green Male/BluexCinnamon Hen/Blue
  • Cock % 12.5 - Blue split to Cinnamon
  • Cock % 25 - Green split to Blue And Cinnamon
  • Cock % 12.5 - Green split to Cinnamon
  • Hen % 12.5 - Blue
  • Hen % 25 - Green split to Blue

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  • Visual Green Male/BluexCinnamon x Green Hen
  • 12.5% Males Visual Green Split to Cinnamon & Blue
  • 12.5% Males Visual Green Split to Cinnamon
  • 12.5% Males Visual Green Split to Blue
  • 12.5% Males Visual Normal Green
  • 12.5% Females Visual Cinnamon Split to Blue
  • 12.5% Females Visual Cinnamon
  • 12.5% Females Visual Green Split to Blue
  • 12.5% Females Visual Green Normals

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  • Visual Green Split/Cinnamon/Blue Male x Green Split/Blue Hen
  • 6.25% Males Visual Blue Split to Cinnamon
  • 6.25% Males Visual Green Split to Blue & Cinnamon
  • 6.25% Males Visual Green Split to Cinnamon
  • 6.25% Males Blue
  • 12.5% Males Visual Green Split to Blue
  • 6.25% Males Visual Green Normals
  • 6.25% Females Visual Cinnamon Blue
  • 6.25% Females Visual Cinnamon Split to Blue
  • 6.25% Females Visual Cinnamon
  • 6.25% Females Visual Blue
  • 12.5% Visual Green Split to Blue
  • 6.25% Visual Green Normals

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  • Visual Green Split/Cinnamon/Blue Male x Blue Hen:
  • 12.5% Males Visual Blue Split to Cinnamon
  • 12.5% Males Visual Green Split to Cinnamon & Blue
  • 12.5% Males Visual Blue
  • 12.5% Males Visual Green Split to Blue
  • 12.5% Females Visual Cinnamon Blue
  • 12.5% Females Visual Cinnamon Split to Blue
  • 12.5% Females Visual Blue
  • 12.5% Females Visual Green Split to Blue

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  • Visual Green Male Split to Blue & Cinnamon x Cinnamon Hen
  • 12.5% Males Visual Cinnamon Split to Blue
  • 12.5% Males Visual Cinnamon
  • 12.5% Males Visual Green Split to Cinnamon & Blue
  • 12.5% Males Visual Green Split to Cinnamon
  • 12.5% Females Visual Cinnamon Split to Blue
  • 12.5% Females Visual Cinnamon
  • 12.5% Females Visual Green Split to Blue
  • 12.5% Females Visual Green Normal

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  • Split/Cinn/Blue Male x Visual Cinnamon Hen/Split Blue:
  • 6.25% Males Visual Cinnamon Blues
  • 12.5% Males Visual Cinnamon Split to Blue
  • 6.25% Males Visual Cinnamon
  • 6.25% Males Visual Blue Split to Cinnamon
  • 12.5% Males Visual Green Split to Blue & Cinnamon
  • 6.25% Males Visual Green Split to Cinnamon
  • 6.25% Females Visual Cinnamon Blue
  • 12.5% Females Visual Cinnamon Split to Blue
  • 6.25% Females Visual Cinnamon
  • 6.25% Females Visual Blue
  • 12.5% Females Visual Green Split to Blue
  • 6.25% Females Visual Green Normal

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  • Visual Green Male Split to Blue and Cinnamon x Visual Cinnamon Blue Hen
  • 12.5% Males Visual Cinnamon Blue
  • 12.5% Males Visual Cinnamon Split to Blue
  • 12.5% Males Visual Blue Split to Cinnamon
  • 12.5% Males Visual Green Split to Blue & Cinnamon
  • 12.5% Females Visual Cinnamon Blue
  • 12.5% Females Visual Cinnamon Split to Blue
  • 12.5% Females Visual Blue
  • 12.5% Females Visual Green Split to Blue

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  • Visual Blue Male x Cinnamon Green Hen
  • Cock % 50 - Green split to Blue And Cinnamon
  • Hen % 50 - Green split to Blue

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  • Visual Blue Male x Cinnamon Green Hen/Blue
  • Cock % 25 - Blue split to Cinnamon
  • Cock % 25 - Green split to Blue And Cinnamon
  • Hen % 25 - Blue
  • Hen % 25 - Green split to Blue

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  • Visual Blue Male Split/Cinnamon x Green Hen
  • 25% Males Visual Green Split to Cinnamon and to Blue
  • 25% Males Visual Green Split to Blue
  • 25% Females Visual Cinnamon Split to Blue
  • 25% Females Visual Green Split to Blue

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  • Visual Blue Male Split/Cinnamon x Visual Green Hen Split/Blue
  • 12.5% Males Visual Blue Split to Cinnamon
  • 12.5% Males Visual Green Split to Cinnamon and to Blue
  • 12.5% Males Visual Blue
  • 12.5% Males Visual Green Split to Blue
  • 12.5% Females Visual Cinnamon Blue
  • 12.5% Females Visual Cinnamon Split to Blue
  • 12.5% Blue
  • 12.5% Visual Green Split to Blue

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  • Visual Blue Male Split/Cinnamon x Blue Hen
  • 25% Males Visual Blue Split/Cinnamon
  • 25% Males Visual Blue
  • 25% Females Visual Cinnamon Blue
  • 25% Females Visual Blue

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  • Visual Blue Male Split/Cinnamon x Visual Cinnamon Hen
  • 25% Males Visual Cinnamon Split/Blue
  • 25% Males Visual Green Split to Cinnamon and Blue
  • 25% Females Visual Cinnamon Split/Blue
  • 25% Females Visual Green Split /Blue

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  • Visual Blue Male Split/Cinnamon x Visual Cinnamon Hen Split/Blue
  • 12.5% Males Visual Cinnamon Blue
  • 12.5% Males Visual Cinnamon Split/Blue
  • 12.5% Males Visual Blue Split/Cinnamon
  • 12.5% Males Visual Green Split to Cinnamon & Blue
  • 12.5% Females Visual Cinnamon Blues
  • 12.5% Females Visual Cinnamon Split to Fallow
  • 12.5% Females Visual Blue
  • 12.5% Females Visual Green Split to Blue

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  • Visual Blue Male Split/Cinnamon x Visual Cinnamon Blue Hen
  • 25% Males Visual Cinnamon Blue
  • 25% Males Visual Blue Split/Cinnamon
  • 25% Females Visual Cinnamon Blue
  • 25% Females Visual Blue

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    Cinnamon

  • Visual Cinnamon Male x Normal Hen
  • 100% of female offspring will be visual Cinnamon
  • 100% of male offspring will be Green Split/Cinnamon

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  • sual Cinnamon Male x Split/Blue Female
  • 100% of the female offspring will be Visual Cinnamon ?Split/Blue
  • 100% of the male offspring will be Split/Cinnamon ?Split/Blue

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  • Visual Cinnamon Male x Blue Female:
  • 100% of the female offspring will be Visual Cinnamon Split/Blue
  • 100% of the male offspring will be Split/Cinnamon/Blue

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  • Visual Cinnamon Male x Cinnamon Female
  • 100% of the offspring will be Visual Cinnamon

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  • Visual Cinnamon Male x Cinnamon Hen Split/Blue
  • 100% of the offspring will be Visual Cinnamon ?Split/Blue

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  • Visual Cinnamon Male x Cinnamon Blue Hen
  • 100% of the offspring will be Visual Cinnamon Split/Blue

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  • Visual Cinnamon Male Split to Blue x Normal Hen
  • Cock % 25 - Green split to Cinnamon Blue
  • Cock % 25 - Green split to Cinnamon
  • Hen % 25 - Cinnamon split to Blue
  • Hen % 25 - Cinnamon

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  • Visual Cinnamon Male Split to Blue x Split/Blue Hen
  • Cock % 12.5 - Blue split to Cinnamon
  • Cock % 25 - Green split to Cinnamon Blue
  • Cock % 12.5 - Green split to Cinnamon
  • Hen % 12.5 - Cinnamon Blue
  • Hen % 25 - Cinnamon split to Blue

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  • Visual Cinnamon Male Split to Blue x Blue Hen
  • Cock % 25 - Blue split to Cinnamon
  • Cock % 25 - Green split to Cinnamon Blue
  • Hen % 25 - Cinnamon Blue
  • Hen % 25 - Cinnamon split to Blue

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  • Visual Cinnamon Male Split to Blue x Cinnamon Hen
  • Cock % 25 - Cinnamon split to Blue
  • Cock % 25 - Cinnamon
  • Hen % 25 - Cinnamon split to Blue
  • Hen % 25 - Cinnamon

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  • Visual Cinnamon Male Split to Blue x Cinnamon Hen Split to Blue
  • Cock % 12.5 Cinnamon Blue
  • Cock % 25 Cinnamon split to Blue
  • Cock % 12.5 Cinnamon
  • Hen % 12.5 Cinnamon Blue
  • Hen % 25 Cinnamon split to Blue
  • Hen % 12.5 Cinnamon

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  • Visual Cinnamon Male Split to Blue x Cinnamon Blue Hen
  • Cock % 25 - Cinnamon Blue
  • Cock % 25 - Cinnamon split to Blue
  • Hen % 25 - Cinnamon Blue
  • Hen % 25 - Cinnamon split to Blue

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  • Visual Cinnamon Blue Male x Cinnamon Hen Split to Blue
  • Cock % 25 - Cinnamon Blue
  • Cock % 25 - Cinnamon split to Blue
  • Hen % 25 - Cinnamon Blue
  • Hen % 25 - Cinnamon split to Blue

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  • Visual Cinnamon Blue Male x Normal Hen:
  • 100% of the female offspring will be Visual Cinnamon Split/Blue
  • 100% of the male offspring will be Split/Cinn/Blue

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  • Visual Cinnamon Blue Male x Green Split/Blue Hen:
  • The female offspring will be Visual Cinnamon Split/Blue or Cinnamon Blu
  • The male offspring can be Green or Blue, and have a 50% chance of being Split to Cinnamon

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  • Visual Cinnamon Blue Male x Blue Hen
  • The female offspring will be Cinnamon Blue
  • The male offspring will be Blue Split/Cinnamon

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  • Visual Cinnamon Blue Male x Cinnamon Hen
  • All the offspring will be Visual Cinnamon Split/Blue

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  • Visual Cinnamon Blue Male x Cinnamon Hen Split/Blue
  • All offspring either visual Cinnamon or Visual Cinnamon Blue
  • All offspring ? Split/Blue

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  • Visual Blue Male x Cinnamon Blue Hen
  • Cock % 50 - Blue split to Cinnamon
  • Hen % 50 - Blue

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  • Visual Cinnamon Blue Male x Visual Cinnamon Blue Hen:
  • All offspring Visual Cinnamon Blues

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    There are so many people that like the Cobals And Violets I have decided to include this also in a different format.

    Violet Breeding
    VARIETY Violet Mauve Mauve Violet Cobalt Violet Sky Sky
    Sky  
     
    Cobalt
    Violet
     
     
    Cobalt
     
    Sky
    V. Sky
    Cobalt
    Violet
    Sky
     
    Cobalt
     
    Sky
    V. Sky
     
     
    Sky
     
     
     
    Violet Sky  
     
    Cobalt
    Violet
     
     
    Cobalt
    Violet
    Sky
    V. Sky
    Cobalt
    Violet
    Sky
    V. Sky
    Cobalt
    Violet
    Sky
    V. Sky
     
     
     
    Cobalt  
     
    Cobalt
    Violet
    Mauve
    V. Mauve
     
     
    Cobalt
     
    Mauve
     
    Sky
    V. Sky
    Cobalt
    Violet
    Mauve
    V. Mauve
    Sky
     
    Cobalt
     
    Mauve
     
       
    Violet  
     
    Cobalt
    Violet
    Mauve
    V. Mauve
     
     
    Cobalt
    Violet
    Mauve
    V. Mauve
    Sky
    V. Sky
    Cobalt
    Violet
    Mauve
    V. Mauve
         
    Mauve Mauve
    V. Mauve
    Mauve
     
           
    Violet Mauve Mauve
    V. Mauve
             
    VARIETY Violet Mauve Mauve Violet Cobalt Violet Sky Sky


    Lutino&Albino(Creamino)Mateings

    Breeding Expectations

    Pairings

    Expectations

    Lutino cock Lutino hen.......

  • Lutino cocks
  • Lutino hen

    Lutino cock Normal hen.......

  • Normal/split Lutino cocks
  • Lutino hens

    Normal/split Lutino cock Lutino hen.......

  • Lutino cocks
  • Normal/split Lutino cocks
  • Lutino hens
  • Normal hens

    Normal/split Lutino cock Normal hen....

  • Normal/split Lutino cocks
  • Normal cocks
  • Lutino hens Normal hens

    Normal cock Lutino hen....................

  • Normal/split Lutino cocks
  • Normal hens

    Note In this example the word Normal means Green or any non ino

    Budgies... For Albino... substitute Blue for Normal and Albino for Lutino

    Lineolateds...For Creamino... substitute Blue for Normal and Creamino for Lutino

    Note: Because the blue in Lineolateds is not a true blue but rather a par blue it is not yet possible to breed an albino.When the true blue is developed then we be able to see a true albino form.


    I stand to be corrected if you find any mistakes in this list,and there may also be a repeat or so. Can you imagin now if we added the ineo factor into this? WOW!


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