What Is the Best Form of Government?
The Renaissance in the Europe initially starts from the late 16th century and the early part of the 17th century. Although, there were some accomplishments made in the 14th century and onward, yet the period of the renaissance emerged from the 16th century to the 17th century. During the renaissance, political, economical, and technological achievements took place. These changes helped the Europe to develop a society that was at the time economically, politically, technologically, and morally poor.
About the same time, when the renaissance took place different philosophers ideologists, and scientists appeared. New theories were introduced; new ideas were presented by philosophers and scholars. Among them were Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean Jacques Rousseau. They all have presented their models of government. They all had reasons to introduce their models to the people for better form of government, the government that can provide them the opportunity to have the basic needs of life and to assure them security. The Europeans were tired of the injustices by the monarchs of the Europe. These monarchs levy taxes on every citizen of the kingdom in order to get money. Economically a large number of publics were poor. This situation created the base of the revolutions, such as, the English, Americans, and French Revolutions. These revolutions caused damaged to the monarch system, the execution of the King Charles I in England was the result of the revolution. These revolutions created a society based on the ideas presented by Locke, Rousseau, and Hobbes and which laid the foundation of a democratic system in the revolutionized countries like, England, France and Russia.
The problem that "what is the best form of government?" was not only the problem in the past but it is still a problem even at the end of the 20th century. Before jumping into the 20th century, lets look at first the time when these ideas were introduced in the Europe.
Thomas Hobbes, who was one of the intellectuals, who presented the idea of the government that the government should be in a hand of an absolute monarch that, can assure the safety of the people. According to him, human beings are born evil and that a society can have safety only when there would be a control of a powerful absolute government. He said that it is good to have a king or a powerful absolute government that must have control over people’s lives. If there is not an absolute government then society would be in chaos and it would cause more disorder in the country.
There were some flaws in his theory, because if a society that forms a government on Hobbes ideas of a government then sooner or later that society will suffer from different types of crisis. In this type of society that is bound and controlled by the government may cause negative affects on the people. The government will control their lives and they will not have an opportunity to explore or to expand and their will not be any competition among the people. Because the people will work under the pressure of force and they do not have any of their own choice. Apart from that, there will be no justice in the society. A recent example of Hobbes based society is former USSR. Karl Marx had created a society based on the Hobbes ideas. The former USSR had suffered not only economical crisis, but also political, law and order crisis in the country. The reason of the fall of the Soviet Union was that, this society was much influenced on people’s lives. There was no competition among the people. If a person was highly educated had the similar options as to the person who was not educated. Therefore, the justice between the people’s achievements was gone.
Now lets look at the another democratic system given by John Locke that has also created free-market enterprise based on interest. In Locke’s form of government although individual has opportunity to pursuit happiness and to acquire as much as one can. This system does gives individual right to explore, to expand and to make freely choice of his own. In Locke’s government, government is defined as, government of the people, by the people, and for the people. The government guarantees the right that every person has right to obtain property, wealth, and can do what ever a person chooses to do. There is no obligation of kindness and kinship. In the system that is based on free-market enterprise and interest, there is an easy chance of monopoly in few hands. This monopoly can easily closes the door for other individuals who are trying to achieve wealth, property and happiness, yet they cannot because they never have a chance to come up. Thus, justice will disappear in this type of society. The monopoly of the few people can make their own laws and then there is not going to have competition among the people. The few people who have money they do not want competition among themselves. For example, as one knows that few years back gas prices in the Washington Metro area were $1.04/gallon regular, $1.18/gallon special grade and $1.29/gallon supreme. These prices were constantly remained same and the public was surprised that there was no oil crisis like in the 70’s. The Washington Post one of its publications in June of 95, a staff writer compared the prices of gas with the gas prices in the 70’s when there were oil shortage. He stated that the gas corporations like Mobil, Exxon, Shell, and Citgo, have much higher percentage rate, then during the oil crisis in the 70’s. These prices were went up high in 1996 within a year and continued until November 1997.
The question again remains that "what is the best form of government?" The government should be based on the three creative principles of absolute justice, kindness and kinship. The law of nature is governing the whole universe according to these three creative principles. A government should based on absolute justice, kindness and kinship. Without these creative principles, no government will serve the purpose and it will cause eventually trouble to the people. There should be justice in forming government, electing candidates, and making policies. These principles keep the government in moderate position. Having these principles, neither there will be extreme liberty, as we know that extreme liberty causes social and moral disorders. Nor these principles allow for extreme control of government that causes disastrous problem. These principles keep society, government, and economic and other pursuit of happiness in proportion. With kindness, we have an opportunity in the world that is based on the theory of "Social Darwinism." With absolute justice, everyone can have his/her share accordingly. These principles were not introduced in the system of Locke, Hobbes or Rousseau. In order to have a best form of government these principles are essential and are based on the natural law.