"The lesson should be planned so that the class is on its toes" Wilga M.Rivers
Not anything planned can go taught and not anything taught can go learnt; other factors are at play which do affect the learning outcome. Therefore a lesson plan though it is not an end in itself, it is compulsory in order to bridge the gap between the potential language features intended to be taught and the feedback. A good built lesson plan is the most effective way to reach the objective the teacher is after. This remark is so obvious that it hardly seems worth mentioning.
In this page I'll endeavour to display the different elements needed in the building of a good lesson plan. Needless to say that there is a variety of lessons dealing with different skills and abilities notably: Listening, Reading, Oral and Writing. Regardless of this diversity, when we are aware of the fact that language is taught essentially to convey and decode messages in the target language as well as negotiating meaning, we know that in a Communicative approach based lesson all these skills are integrated, i.e.: One skill leads to another. In brief, the objective behind any lesson plan is to make the learners able to understand and communicate ideas in the target language: here, English.
This sort of procedure allows the teacher to be aware of the weak points in her lesson and eventually tries to redress them. This way the teacher will soon become an action researcher and gradually problems become less tough or at least spotted and rectified or avoided. Professionals at any field pass through action research to restructure their product and head towards perfection confidently.
1st stage: OPENNING MOVE:
The procedure the teacher uses to focus the students' attention on the learning aims of the lesson. This can be done through a relatively short warm up: greeting the audience, jokes, riddles, chat, specifying the objectives of the lesson.. etc.
2nd stage: TRANSITIONAL MOVE
This stage includes all the possible shifts, throughout the lesson, depending of course on the different sub-activities previously planned to attain the overall goals of the lesson. And that's what we can call "Sequencing". There is another crucial factor in this stage, notably the "Pacing". It is the extent to which a lesson maintains its momentum and communicates a sense of development. ~ more ~
3rd stage: CLOSING MOVE
This means the strategies which lead to bring a lesson to an end effectively. This "Closure" stage can be done through,
*Summarizing what has been covered in the lesson.
*Reviewing key points in the lesson.
*Relating the lesson to the course or lesson goals.
*Pointing out links between the lesson and previous lessons.
*Showing how the lesson related to students real world needs.
*Making links to a forthcoming lesson.(directions)
*Praising students for what they have accomplished during the lesson.
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